Cortisone & Prednisolone: These are corticosteroids. If taken during the later part of pregnancy, these may cause deficiency of adrenal hormone on withdrawl of the drug. They delays growth and promote infection.
Cyclizine : The effects are the same as chlorocyclizine.
Cyclophosphamide: This has the same effects busulphan.
Dexamethasone: Its effects are the same as cortisone.
Dexamphetamine : This is used as a slimming drug. It may cause developmental defects of the heart in the foetus, if taken during pregnancy.
Diazepam: An anti-anxiety drug, if taken in a large quantity during late pregnancy, it may cause lowering of the body temperature and muscular weakness in the newborn baby.
Diazoxide: It may lead to abnormal distribution of foetal hair formation and hypoglycaemia in the new born baby.
Dicoumarol: Its effects are the same as bishydroxycoumarin.
Dihydrogesterone: It is likely to produce male characteristics in female babies.
Estrogens: If taken during pregnancy, they may cause vaginal cancer in the female children at a later age and feminization of male offspring.
Ethionamide: This is an anti-tubercular drug. Its use during pregnancy may cause physical defects in the foetus.
Ethisterone: The effect of this drug are similar to dihydrogesterone.
Furosemide: This is a diuretic (increases urine output), it should not be used during pregnancy as it may cause the death of the foetus due to decreased circulation.
Glibenclamide: It may cause prolonged hypoglycaemia in neonates (newborn babies) if taken during late pregnancy.
Hydralazine: It increases the heart rate of newborn babies.
Hydroxy progesterone: The effects are the same as those of dihydrogesteron.
Ibuprofen, Indomethacin & other pain relievers: This drug is sometimes used in rheumatoid arthritis. If used during the early part of the pregnancy, it may cause physical defect (premature closure of ductus) in the foetus.
Iodides: These are ingredients of many cough mixtures and also used in a hyerfunctioning thyroid. Their use during pregnancy may alter thyroid function in the newborn babies. It may also affect their mental functions.
Lithium Carbonate: This is an antidepressant drug. If taken during the first trimester it may cause physical defects in the foetus and poor suckling in the neonate.
Meclizine: Its effects are common to chlorcyclizine.
Melphalan: This has the same effects as busulphan.
Methyldopa: Destruction of red blood cells (hemolytic anaemia) and decreased activity of the intestines occurs.
Morphine: A potent pain reliever, it is an addiction causing drug. The newborn babies of addicted mothers may be premature and exhibit withdrawal symptoms. The chances of death among such babies are very high.
Nitrofurantoin: Commonly used in urinary tract infection its use should be avoided during the last few days of pregnancy as it may cause bursting of red blood cells, specially in individuals who are genetically deficient in certain enzymes:
Norethisterone: The same effects occur as in dihydrogesterone.
Norethynodrel: The same effects occur as in dihydrogesterone.
Opium: The same effects occur as in morphine.
Oral contraceptive: These are used by women for birth control but if by any chance pregnancy occurs, the doctor should be consulted because of the possibility of adverse effects on the foetus.
Pethidine: The same effects occur as with morphine.
Phenobarbitone: The effects are the same as with barbiturates.
Phenytoin: This is an anti-epileptic drug. If taken during the last few days of pregnancy, the newborn baby may suffer from bleeding disorders (hypoprothrombinaemia and haemorrhage). The use of anti-epileptic drugs may cause physical defects in the foetus.
Prednisolone: This produces the same effects as cortisone.
Primaquine: It is an anti-malaria drug. If taken during pregnancy, the newborn baby may suffer from haemolysis and jaundice.
Primidone: The effects are the same as with phenytoin.
Progesterone: The same effects occur as with dihydrogesterone.
Propranolol: This is used in some heart disorders and high blood pressure. Its use should be avoided during pregnancy as it may cause slowing of the heart rate and decrease of blood sugar in neonates.
Propylthiouracil: The same effects occur as with carbimazole.
Purgatives: These are used in constipation. Strong purgatives may cause abortion.
Pyrimethamine: Sometimes used in malaria, its use may cause foetal malformation.
Quinine: Now quinine is used in chloroquine-resistant cases of malaria. Use in early pregnancy may cause abortion. It has been associated with deafness and vision defects in offspring, if taken during pregnancy.
Salbutamol: It increases the heart rate in newborn babies.
Stilboesterol: The same effects occur as with estrogen.
Streptomycin: This is an anti-tubercular drug. It may produce deafness and weakness of the muscles in the newborn baby if taken during pregnancy.
Sulfonamides: These drugs should be avoided during the last few days of pregnancy as they may cause jaundice in newborn babies. These drugs may also combine with the haemoglobin of red blood cells (methaemoglobenaemia) rendering it unable to carry oxygen.
Tetracyclines: These antibiotics, if taken during pregnancy, are deposited in developing bones and lead to discolouration of teeth and impair bone growth of the foetus.
Tolbutamide: The effects are the same as with glibenclamide. It may also cause a decrease in platelets, causing bleeding.
Trimethoprim: This drug is used in certain infections. It may increase blood bilirubin.
Valproic acid: This can cause defects of spinal cord.
Vitamin A & Isotretinoin: Large doses, if taken during pregnancy, may cause developmental defects of head, face, in the urinary and genital system, in the foetus (Isotretinoin never used).
Vitamin D: Very large doses should be avoided during pregnancy. It may cause mental retardation and defects in bones.
Vitamin K : Large doses during pregnancy may produce jaundice in the newborn.
Warfarin : The same effects occur as with bishydroxycoumarin.
Note: Exposure to X-ray radiation must be avoided during pregnancy especially in the first six months as it may cause malformation of the foetus.