Specifics on Pancreatic Cancer

The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine program. It creates a number of essential hormones, like insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin as well as secretes pancreatic juice that contains digestive enzymes. It is a quite important organ dealing with digestion and hormone creation but unfortunately also vulnerable to numerous infections such as pancreatic cancer. Each year about 33,000 individuals in the United States and much more than sixty,000 in Europe are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

Early diagnosis for pancreatic cancer is really difficult simply because most of its signs and symptoms are non-distinct. The most typical apparent indicators for this kind of cancer are discomfort in the upper abdomen, loss of appetite, significant excess weight decline and painless jaundice connected to bile duct obstruction. All of these indicators can potentially have numerous causes, which is the reason why pancreatic cancer is often not diagnosed until finally it is inits advanced phases./p>

There are several distinct causal chance factors linked with the improvement of pancreatic cancer. These chance aspects incorporate age, male gender, African ethnicity, smoking, weight problems, a higher meat diet regime, and diabetes. Pancreatic cancer is usually learned for the duration of the course of the evaluation of all of these signs and symptoms. Liver function exams are frequently carried out to verify if there is any obstruction in the bile duct. Ultrasound and CT scans are also utilised to scan the inside of our bodies and to identify tumor growths.

The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is not quite very good at all the cause for this is simply because cancer of the pancreas are often not diagnosed until they are in some superior and damaging phases. The typical survival price after becoming diagnosed is between three to six months, and the 5-yr survival fee is close to 5%. Pancreatic cancer has the best demise rate of all types of cancer andis the fourth greatest cancer killer in the United States among equally males and girls alike.

There are several techniques to avert the growth of pancreatic cancer. Smoking is the most substantial and easiest avoidable danger for acquiring this type of cancer. Preserving a wholesome bodyweight and continuous exercising is also another very good way to not only avoid cancer but to preserve your body suit and healthy. Consuming fruits, greens and grains and decreasing red meat intake in your diet program is another advised prevention. Vitamin D has also been shown to significantly lessen the chance of establishing this type of cancer by up to fifty%.

Pancreatic cancer is definitely a deadly illness and it is crucial for all of us to know the details about it, the different symptoms it manifest and the methods of stopping it.
Pancreatic Cancer

The Top 5 Cancers Of The Female Reproductive System

All of the parts of the female reproductive system like the vagina, the cervix, the vulva, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and the uterus have the tendency to acquire cancers. These are classified as the gynecologic cancers. This type of cancers could directly affect the nearby organs and tissues. They are also known to metastasize or spread through the lymphatic system and the bloodstream, thus affecting other distant parts of the body as well.

How Are These Cancers Diagnosed?

Early detection of particular gynecologic cancers, especially cervical cancer, can be done through regular examinations of the pelvic area, Pap smears, and other tests of the same kind. These examinations are even known to sometimes aid in preventing cancer because they are responsible for detecting dysplasia or precancerous changes before they develop into cancer. Periodic pelvic examinations could also identify early cancer signs in the vulva and the vagina. However, the cancers that develop in the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and uterus are difficult to detect during this type of examination.

If a doctor suspects that you have a certain kind of cancer in one of your reproductive organs, then he will have a biopsy done so that his diagnosis could be ruled out or confirmed. Once you are diagnosed, a procedure or two will be performed so the cancer stage will be determined.

The staging of a gynecologic cancer or any other type of cancer for that matter will be based on the size of the cancer and the breadth by which it has already spread. Some of the procedures that you might be subjected to may include computed tomography or CT, ultrasonography, chest X-rays, bone scans utilizing a radioactive substance, and magnetic resonance imaging or MRI.

What Are the Top 5 Cancers Concerning the Female Reproductive System?

1.The most prevalent cancer experienced by women when it comes to their reproductive system is the uterine cancer. This develops on the uterine lining, which is known as the endometrium, thus it is also known as the endometrial cancer. This is known to be the fourth most common cancer among women in the U.S. Studies show that uterine cancer occurs in one of every five women.

2.The second gynecologic cancer that is most common among women is ovarian cancer. This is known to be fatal because it is generally advanced already upon diagnosis. This is because early stages of this type of cancer do not show any symptoms and even advanced stages show nonspecific symptoms as well.

3.Cervical cancer is known to be number three among all the gynecologic cancers among women. By its name alone, it can be seen that this cancer develops right in the cervix, which can be found at the lower area of the uterus. Usually affecting women aged 35 to 55, this type of cancer can also affect younger women, even those in their twenties.

4.Meanwhile, the vulvar cancer is known as the fourth most common cancer that occurs in the female reproductive system. Occurring on the vulva, which is the external part of the vagina, the vulvar cancer makes up for three to four percent of all gynecologic cancers.

5.The fifth most common gynecologic cancer is the vaginal cancer. This makes up one percent of the cancers of the female reproductive system and normally affects older women, usually aged 60 to 65 years old upon diagnosis.

Secondary Lung Cancer Cures Are Rare

Cancers that can spread from their original locations are called secondary cancers. This process, called metastasizing, moves the cancers through the bloodstream, lymphatic system, or by direct extension to a new location. One or many of the cancerous cells of the primary cancer (where the disease originated) can break off and slip into the bloodstream or lymphatic system to reach other organs.

Cancerous cells in the lungs as well can appear there without having originated there; in children, cancers of the lungs usually manifest through this process. Cancer that appears in the lungs but did not originate there is called secondary lung cancer. Even though it affects the lungs, secondary lung cancer is named according to the type of cancer it originated from, the primary cancer. For example, breast cancer that spreads to the lungs and becomes secondary lung cancer would still be considered breast cancer.

While nearly every type of cancer has the ability to metastasize and spread to the lungs, some do so more commonly than others. Secondary lung cancer is usually a result of bladder, breast, prostate, or colon cancer. Sarcoma, Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma also tend to migrate to the lungs.

Secondary lung cancer, in addition to being a disease in itself, is also usually an indication that the primary cancer has reached an advanced stage, though this is not always the case. Signs of secondary lung cancer include persistent cough, breathlessness, coughing up blood, and chest pain. These symptoms, in addition to being similar to those for primary lung cancer, also mimic several less serious diseases. A diagnosis of secondary lung cancer may therefore require x-rays, CT scans, MRIs, PET scans, or biopsies.

Symptoms of secondary lung cancer can interrupt daily activities for sufferers. But there are ways to manage and treat the symptoms. Medication can help address symptoms such as breathlessness, cough and chest pain. Other symptoms must be managed by the patient through awareness. Some patients begin to fear they will choke, due to their increased difficulty with breathing, but should be aware that this is unlikely. Others may be distressed by coughing up blood, but should know that coughing up a little blood is not unusual to patients with secondary lung cancer. Only those coughing up large amounts of blood need to seek treatment for this symptom.

Secondary lung cancer can also cause a build up of fluid in the lungs, a condition termed pleural effusion. This fluid may be drained out of the lungs to relieve pain and difficulty breathing, though it may build up again over time.
Treatment for secondary lung cancer is similar to that for primary lung cancer, and includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. However, in secondary lung cancer in particular, chemotherapy is the preferred treatment option. This is because secondary lung cancer is an indication that the primary cancer has spread into the bloodstream. In such cases, removing visible tumors through surgery is not effective, as other cancerous cells can be present in the body without being visible. Chemotherapy can target even those cells CT scans cannot see, making it the most common treatment choice.

However, a cure is unlikely and the five-year survival rate for those diagnosed with secondary lung cancer is not promising. The cancer can sometimes be cured via surgery, but this outcome is rare.

Colon Cancer Metastasizes In Man With Symptoms When Doctors Do Not Conduct A Colonoscopy

When it comes to several cancers like colon cancer there are well-defined recommendations and guidelines for the tests to conduct when a person has certain symptoms. In cases where a doctor does not comply with these guidelines and the person does have cancer which ultimately ends up spreading from the resulting holdup in detecting the cancer, that physician might be liable for medical malpractice. To illustrate such a scenario look at the following documented lawsuit.

At the time the patient in this matter commenced treating with his primary care physician the physician conducted a full physical examination and documented his findings of both internal and external hemorrhoids. The doctor recorded that the patient had bleeding from the rectum occasionally. The doctor failed to do any more testing to check for the presence of blood in the man’s stool or to determine the source of the bleeding. Also, despite the fact that the individual was fifty years old at the time, the physician did not send the patient for a sigmoidoscopy or a colonoscopy in order to screen for colon cancer.

After 2 years, having experienced a number of days of abdominal pain the man went in to the urgent care department at his doctor’s office. The nurse who conducted the examination put an entry in his record that she found occult blood in the man’s stool during a guiaic test. When the man returned to check in with the doctor for the results of the examination but the physician did not do anything about the positive finding of blood in the stool. The doctor did however recommend that the patient undergo a screening sigmoidoscopy and referred him to a gastroenterologist.

The gastroenterologist performed the sigmoidoscopy as requested by the primary care physician instead of a full colonoscopy. The gastroenterologist only examined up to 35 cm and noted merely hemorrhoids none of which were bleeding but failed to determine the source for the earlier finding of blood in the stool.

Two years later, the patient was again seen by the internist this time for bloating of the abdomen. As the internist performed a physical examination of the patient he was able to feel an a mass on the liver and ordered a CT scan which found large masses present both in the liver as well as the colon:. Now the internist at last sent the patient for a colonoscopy which found colon cancer. By then however, the patient had stage IV colon cancer which was so advanced that surgery was no longer an option. The patient began treating with chemotherapy but died just over a year following his diagnosis.

A lawsuit was pursued against both physicians by the family of the patient. The law firm that represented the family announced that they were able to obtain a settlement in the amounts of $1,500,000 on behalf of the man’s family.

This matter illustrates why it is so important to do proper tests for symptoms that raise the suspicion of colon cancer. Specifically when a patient has blood in the stool physicians usually concur that a colonoscopy rather than a sigmoidoscopy ought to be performed to rule out cancer. By doing only a sigmoidoscopy in this instance the doctors failed to check the full length of the patient’s colon and hence wrongly eliminated colon cancer as a possible source for the blood. This ended in a two year holdup in the detection of the patient’s cancer. The law firm that handled this case on behalf of the man’s family no doubt had medical experts ready to offer testimony that had this delay not happened the man’s cancer would not have metastasized and the individual would have survived after treatment.

Healthcare Radiation Therapy Workers Need Protective Equipment

Radiation therapy is a vital health service. It is used as a primary cancer treatment for malignant cancers and before bone marrow transplants. Health care employees who work around radiation require personal protective equipment to guard their bodies from the damaging effects of repeated exposure to radiation and x-rays. A variety of different types of protective equipment is available.

X-Ray Aprons

X-ray aprons are available in both leaded and lead-free styles. They are no longer the dull grey drape, but are now sold in colorful and unique patterns and fabrics. They are available in a range of sizes and shapes to meet individual needs. Lead-free aprons are friendly to the environment while still providing 0.50 mm radiation protection levels.

Lead Gloves

Lead gloves protect the hands from scatter-beam radiation and are available in a number of different shapes and sizes to meet varying needs. Gloves are available as large, round open-palm mitts, or as a more fitted glove that offers greater flexibility and allows technologists to perform more delicate tasks. Using gloves every x-ray will reduce the risk of harmful repeat exposures. Lead gloves are available latex-free for people who have allergies. Lead gloves come in both disposable and reusable varieties.

Leaded Glasses

Leaded glasses protect the eyes from x-rays. Eyes are one of the most sensitive body parts and are highly susceptible to damage caused by radiation. Protective eyewear should be worn each and every time an x-ray procedure is performed. Glasses are available in different designs, including wrap-around styles, in men’s and women’s sizes. Prescription protective eyewear is also available, as well as designs that are made to fit over eyeglasses. Lightweight designs are available to make the eyewear more comfortable for all-day wear.

Lead Masks

Sometimes eyewear is not enough to protect a healthcare worker from the harmful effects of scatter radiation. When doctors or technologists are repeatedly exposed to high levels of scatter radiation or electromagnetic rays, a lead mask should be worn. Masks are designed to protect from radiation at every angle and provide maximum facial coverage.

Thyroid Shields

The thyroid is a sensitive gland that can be easily damaged by radiation. Damage to the thyroid can set someone up for a lifetime of health problems, so it is important to protect it. Lead thyroid collars and neck shields protect the gland from radiation exposure. A lead neck shield can protect the thyroid from up to 60 percent of electromagnetic waves without affecting a CT image.

Renal Cell Cancer Treatment In India At Mumbai And Delhi At Low Cost.

Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer

What Is Kidney Cancer (Adult) – Renal Cell Carcinoma?

Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts in the kidneys. To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the kidneys.

About the kidneys
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist and weighing about 4 to 5 ounces. They are fixed to the upper back wall of the abdominal cavity. One kidney is just to the left and the other just to the right of the spine. Both are protected by the lower ribcage.

Renal Cancer, Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome, VHL Syndrome Surgery, Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The kidneys’ main job is to filter blood and rid your body of excess water, salt, and waste products. The filtered waste products are concentrated into urine. Urine leaves the kidneys through long slender tubes called ureters that connect to the bladder. Urine flows down the ureters into the bladder, where it is stored until you urinate.

The kidneys also help make sure the body has enough red blood cells. It does this by making a hormone called erythropoietin, which tells the bone marrow to make more red blood cells.

There are several subtypes of RCC, based mainly on how the cancer cells look under a microscope: –

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma : –

This is the most common form of renal cell carcinoma. About 8 out of 10 people with renal cell carcinoma have this kind of cancer. When seen under a microscope, the cells that make up clear cell RCC appear very pale or clear.

Papillary renal cell carcinoma : – This is the second most common subtype — about 10% to 15% of people have this kind. These cancers form little finger-like projections (called papillae) in some, if not most, of the tumor. Some doctors call these cancers chromophilic because the cells take in certain dyes used so the tissue can be seen under the microscope, and look pink.

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma : – This subtype accounts for about 5% of RCCs. The cells of these cancers are also pale, like the clear cells, but are much larger and have certain other features that can be recognized.

Collecting duct renal cell carcinoma : – This subtype is very rare. The major feature is that the cancer cells can form irregular tubes.

Unclassified renal cell carcinoma : – In rare cases, renal cell cancers are labeled as unclassified because the way they look doesn’t fit into any of the other categories or because there is more than one type of cell present.

Renal Cell Cancer Causes
The exact cause of renal cell cancer has not been determined. A number of different factors seem to contribute to renal cell cancer.

These factors include the following: –

* Cigarette smoking doubles the risk of renal cell cancer and contributes to as many as one third of all cases. The more someone smokes, the greater the risk is of that person developing renal cell cancer.

* Obesity is a risk factor. As body weight increases, so does the risk of developing renal cell cancer. This is especially true in women.

* Occupational exposure to petroleum products, heavy metals, solvents, coke-oven emissions, or asbestos

* Cystic kidney disease associated with chronic (long-term) renal insufficiency

* Cystic changes in the kidney and renal dialysis

* Tuberous sclerosis

* Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, an inherited disease associated with several cancers

* Hereditary renal cancer

Renal cell carcinoma risk factors
The majority of kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas. Risk factors for renal cell carcinoma include: –

* Age. Your risk of renal cell carcinoma increases as you age. Renal cell carcinoma occurs most commonly in people 60 and older.

* Sex. Men are more likely to develop renal cell carcinoma than women are.

* Smoking. Smokers have a greater risk of renal cell carcinoma than nonsmokers do. The risk increases the longer you smoke and decreases after you quit.

* Obesity. People who are obese have a higher risk of renal cell carcinoma than do people who are considered average weight.

* High blood pressure (hypertension). High blood pressure increases your risk of renal cell carcinoma, but it isn’t clear why. Some research in animals has linked high blood pressure medications to an increased risk of kidney cancer, but studies in people have had conflicting results.

* Chemicals in your workplace. Workers who are exposed to certain chemicals on the job may have a higher risk of renal cell carcinoma. People who work with chemicals such as asbestos, cadmium and trichloroethylene may have an increased risk of kidney cancer.

* Treatment for kidney failure. People who receive long-term dialysis to treat chronic kidney failure have a greater risk of developing kidney cancer. People who have a kidney transplant and receive immunosuppressant drugs also are more likely to develop kidney cancer.

* Von Hippel-Lindau disease. People with this inherited disorder are likely to develop several kinds of tumors, including, in some cases, renal cell carcinoma.

* Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma. Having this inherited condition makes it more likely you’ll develop one or more renal cell carcinomas.

Transitional cell carcinoma risk factors
Risk factors for transitional cell carcinoma include: –

* Smoking. Smoking increases your risk of transitional cell carcinomas.

* Chemicals in your workplace. Working with certain chemicals may increase your risk of transitional cell carcinoma.

* A withdrawn medication. Phenacetin, which was removed from the market in the United States in the early 1980s, has been linked to kidney cancer. Phenacetin was used in prescription and over-the-counter pain relievers.

The following steps may be taken for a health care provider to make a correct diagnosis: –

* Medical interview: – A health care provider asks questions about the symptoms and how they started, current and previous medical problems, medications, family medical history, work and travel history, and habits and lifestyle.

* Physical exam: – This exam is performed to look for abnormalities that suggest a cause of the symptoms.

* X-rays, a CT scan, and lab tests: – These studies are usually performed after the interview and physical exam. If the results suggest that renal cell cancer or another cancer may be present, referral to a surgeon, a radiologist, and/or an oncologist (a doctor who specializes in cancer) may be needed.

* Biopsy: – A biopsy involves taking a small sample of the tumor. The sample is usually removed via a large needle inserted into the tumor. The sample is examined by a pathologist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing diseases in tissues and body fluids). Cancer cells in the biopsy sample confirm the diagnosis of cancer. If the diagnosis of kidney cancer is strongly suspected based on x-ray/CT scan studies, biopsies of the kidney are not always done because of the risk of bleeding. The definitive diagnosis of kidney cancer is made at the time of surgery to remove the kidney (nephrectomy).

* Staging: – Another series of imaging studies and lab tests are performed to learn more details about the cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Careful staging is extremely important for planning treatment and predicting the course of the disease.

Renal Cell Cancer Treatment
The likelihood that renal cell cancer will be cured depends on its stage when it is diagnosed and treated. Renal cell cancers found in the early stages are cured over half the time. Unfortunately, this cancer often is not found until it has reached an advanced stage. The chance of curing metastatic (stage IV) renal cell cancer is small.

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Imrt In Breast Cancer

Worldwide breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. In the developed world, it is responsible for 18 percent of all cases of cancers seen in women. One million new cases of breast cancer are registered worldwide every year and it is the single commonest cause of death among women in the 40- 50 years age group. In India breast cancer is the second commonest cancer seen in the women after carcinoma cervix. Its prevalence is higher in urban women and it accounts for 20% of all cancer related diseases. In Mumbai and Delhi, it is the commonest malignancy seen in women. In India it has an incidence of 17-40 cases per 1, 00,000 population and the 5 years survival is 42.3 percent to 46.8 percent.

Conventionally radiotherapy in early breast cancers is done by the whole breast technique which utilizes two tangential ports. Upper margin of the radiotherapy field lies at the first intercostals space, and the lower margin lies 2 cm below the inferior mammary line. Medial margin is in the midsternal line and the lateral margin is at the mid axillary line. A total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions is given over 5 weeks by conventional fractionation followed by boost of 10-20 Gy. This technique is easy to setup, and avoids the junction dose. Computerizes planning is done for dose optimization. Standard 2d treatment (conventional radiotherapy) techniques utilizes a simplistic view of patient anatomy and it creates hot spot because lung transmission is not accurately included and thinner regions of breast (superior and inferior) are modeled like the thickest slice of the breast. Thus conventional radiotherapy has limitations in the treatment of breast cancer and these include.

Dose inhomogeniety due to change in the contours of the breast 1520 percent of dose inhomogenicity in the superior and the inferior planes of the breast occurs. The medial and lateral aspects of the breast get higher doses of radiation.

Radiation accompaniments i. e. radiation effects on normal tissues in the field are seen uncommonly but they do occur in the lungs and the heart. Newer techniques are able to minimize them.

The newer techniques are used to

Improve dose homogeneity within the tumor volume.
Avoid radiation to normal tissues in the area.
Reduce side effects related to the radiation treatment.
Improve local tumor control and overall survival of the patient.
In an attempt to address the above mentioned parameters a number of newer radiotherapy techniques have been introduced for the treatment of early breast cancer. These include IMRT, external beam RT using 3D conformal RT, Intraoperative Electron Beam RT, Mammosite Ballon Branchytherapy and interstitial branchytherapy. Gated radiotherapy is also available.

All these techniques need a CT scan based treatment planning system and require the use of tissue compensators.


IMRT is an approach to conformal therapy that not only delivers high dose to the tumor tissue but also ensures low dose to the surrounding normal tissue. The dose is varied depending on the tumor volume. A higher dose of radiation can be delivered to the areas with high tumor volume, a small dose where tumor volume is not so high and a minimal dose is delivered to surrounding normal tissue. By these means a higher tumor control probability and minimal or no side effects of radiotherapy are achieved, resulting in improved therapeutic ratio and better patient care.

Important normal structures that need to be examined and protected while IMRT for breast cancer is being planned include

Ipsilateral lung
Contralateral lung
Contralateral breast
Tissues outside the breast planned tumor volume (PTV)
Dose specifications in IMRT are as follows:

Breast volume receiving 105% of prescribed dose should be
Breast volume receiving 110% of prescribed dose should be 55
Breast receiving 115% of prescribed dose should be

Colon Cancer – Diagnosis, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Prognosis.

Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Colon cancer is the second most common cancer in the USA with equal distribution between men and women. Colon tumors usually affect people over the age of 40, with the majority of people who are diagnosed with the condition being over 60 years of age. Colon cancer may affect any racial or ethnic group; however, some studies suggest that Americans of northern European heritage have a higher-than-average risk of colon tumours.

Colon cancer is more common in industrialized nations and in those societies where red meat is a major part of the diet, although evidence tends to suggest that merely changing your diet to white meat and seafood as in for instance Japan, tends to just swap stomach cancer for colon cancer. In almost all cases colon cancer is a treatable disease if caught early.

Colon cancer usually begins with the appearance of benign growths such as polyps. Often there are no early symptoms. If signs and symptoms of colon cancer do appear, they may include: a change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool for more than a couple of weeks, rectal bleeding or blood in your stool, persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain, abdominal pain with a bowel movement, a feeling that your bowel doesn’t empty completely, weakness or fatigue and unexplained weight loss.

Colon cancer’s exact cause is unknown, but it appears to be influenced by both inherited and environmental factors. Studies show a concentration in areas of higher economic development suggesting a relationship to diet, particularly excess animal fat and low fiber. Other factors that increase the risk of developing colon tumors are: age over 40, the presence of other diseases of the digestive tract, family history and ulcerative colitis.
Development of colon cancer at an early age, or at multiple sites, or recurrent colon cancer, suggests a genetically transmitted form of the disease as opposed to the sporadic form. There also is a slight increased risk for colon carcinoma in the individual who smokes.
The most common colon cancer cell type is adenocarcinoma which accounts for 95% of cases.

The development of polyps of the colon usually precedes the development of colon cancer by five or more years. The American Gastroenterologial Association revised its screening guidelines in 2003 to recommend that people with two or more first-degree relatives with colorectal cancer or a first-degree relative with colon or rectal cancer before age 60 should have a screening colonoscopy beginning at age 40 or beginning 10 years prior to the age of the earlier colon cancer diagnosis in their family (whichever is earliest). Those with a first-degree relative diagnosed with colon cancer after age 60 or two second-degree relative with colon or rectal cancer should begin screening at age 40 with one of the methods listed above, such as annual sigmoidoscopy. The most common colon cancer screening tests are colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood test.
CT scans and Barium enemas are also routinely used for diagnosis of colon and rectal cancers.

Almost all colon tumors are treated with surgery first, regardless of stage. The malignant tumor, adjacent tissues and any lymph nodes that may contain cancer cells are removed.
In colon cancer, chemotherapy after surgery is usually only given if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes (Stage III). Radiation therapy may also be used to induce tumor regression. As with other cancer treatments, the incidence of side effects varies with patient health and the exact nature of the treatment.

There is not an absolute method for preventing colon cancer. Still, there are steps an individual can take to dramatically lessen the risk or to identify the precursors of colon cancer so that it does not manifest itself. People who turn age 50, and all of those with a history of colon cancer in their families, should speak with their physicians about the most recent screening recommendations from physician and cancer organizations. They should watch for symptoms and attend all recommended screenings to increase the likelihood of catching colon cancer early. Exercise is believed to reduce the risk of colon cancer. Apparently, no association exists between frequency of bowel movement or laxative use and risk of colon cancer.

Prognosis depends on the stage of the disease and the overall health of the patient. If diagnosed early, before the tumor has spread from the bowel, these treatments are very effective, with about 90% of patients alive five years after diagnosis. If the colon cancer does not come back (recur) within 5 years, it is considered cured. Prognosis is poor in patients with liver and lung metastases.

Home Health Care For Orthopedic, Wound And Heart Disease Aids Independent Living

Quite a few health issues can create a need for elderly home health care. The chronically ill or those with injured may at one time or another need orthopedic home care, wound care CT services or heart disease CT care. When someone with any of these medical issues must receive care, their choices have typically been limited to checking into the hospital or into a skilled nursing facility. Many of these conditions do not allow seniors to remain living in the home since they need not only medical care but also help with their daily living such as dressing, bathing, cooking and cleaning.

The alternative to staying in a facility is to use home care services to deal with each of these issues. Staying at home allows loved ones to get the care they need in the comfort and security of familiar surroundings. Just relieving the stress of having to be away from home can go a long way in helping the healing process.

Orthopedic Home Care

Orthopedic home care assists patients when they are first discharged from the hospital after orthopedic surgery. The goal of the orthopedic home care service is to help the elderly become mobile quickly while living independently at home. In essence, receiving this care at home can get people back to normalcy much quicker than typical post-surgical care.

Wound Care CT

In the same way that orthopedic home care allows patients to return home, wound care CT services help recent hospital patients to recover at home from wounds such as ulcers, stomas, drains and fistulas.This advanced care makes the difference in healing quickly and returning patients to health in the comfort of their home.

Heart Disease CT

People with heart failure must work diligently with medical professionals to maintain their health and return to independent living especially after heart failure and surgery. Heart disease CT home care allows patients to return home and get the care needed until they are fully recovered. By staying in the home, they can lead a stress free recovery that promotes quick healing and can help to prevent reentry into the hospital.

No matter what specialized home care service is needed, home caregiver agencies can provide professional nursing teams to fully assess and evaluate patient needs so that they can live in the home all while receiving needed care. These services allow a much better quality of life than the constant need to move in and out of hospitals, and seniors are happier staying within their own homes for as long as they possibly can.

Harmful Cannabis Toxins Leads to Bullous Lung Condition

Even though most are curious about the impact of weed in cancer, another kind of physical damage is a lot more likely to appear when smoking. This damage takes the shape of lung diseases and more specifically bullous emphysema.

Bullous emphysema is really a serious disease that hurts lung capability as well as functionality. The high temperature ranges and extended breathing in of weed smoke both lead to a rapid loss of lung wall linings. This erosion lessens the lung’s elasticity and results in much less oxygen accessible in the bloodstream. This can be best shown through lack of breath and increased threat of infection.

A study published inside the January 2008 version of Respirology titled -Bullous Lung Disease due to Marijuana- further details this matter. A team directed by Dr. Matthew Naughton planned to study the side effects associated with cannabis smoke on the lungs.

One major point the researchers unveiled was that cannabis users can acquire bullous lung diseases much earlier than cigarette users. The mean time for developing such a disease in marijuana consumers was 41 years old while at the same time tobacco users was 65 years old, an enormous 24 year distinction! As mentioned previously, this is produced by marijuana smoke being inhaled with a greater temperature and kept in the lung area for a longer time period.

Another unpleasant finding they made had been that bullous lung disease often goes undetected. Lung function and X-rays may seem completely normal while high definition CT scans tell a completely different tale of serious lung injury.

The encouraging idea behind this situation is that this type of lung ailment is completely avoidable. Because the issue is linked towards the smoke alone and not the marijuana, by removing the smoke, you eliminate the harm.

Wiping out the dangerous smoke problem requires a procedure referred to as vaporization. I am a powerful advocate of vaporization as it enables users to acquire the favorable advantages of THC without the need to harm their own lungs along the way.

Vaporization works by warming weed to the proper degree which allows the THC to basically boil out and get circulated by means of vapor while not allowing the natural green material to catch on fire. This drastically lowers heat and toxic levels of the inhaled material.