Curing Eczema In Old Age

Eczema is an inflammatory condition that causes the skin to become red, scaly and itchy. An inflammation of the skin, usually causing itching and sometimes accompanied by crusting, scaling or blisters. A type of eczema often made worse by allergen exposure is termed “atopic dermatitis.” A chronic inflammatory skin condition that usually initially appears in young children who have an inherited predisposition to allergies. Many children with atopic dermatitis go on to develop atopic (allergic) rhinitis or atopic (allergic) asthma.

It was seen that eczema skin symptoms vary from person to person but, however, the most usual eczema skin symptoms are reddening of the skin, a prolonged itching sensation, swelling of the affected areas, and sometimes blistering, and crusting.Itching is an important symptom of eczema, and those with atopic dermatitis are more sensitive to it, needing to scratch for a long time. It is known that scratching and rubbing in response to itching makes the skin inflammation get worse.

All alergies has resistance levels. This means if you give a product today and it was OK then that does not mean that person is not allergetic to it. Tomorow the same product can trigger allergies. Eczema usually results from internal factors, such as the absorption of irritant chemicals, soaps, and shampoos, allergy to wheat (gluten), etc.

Evening Primrose Oil – this is either applied topically or taken in capsule form. This oil contains gamma linolenic acid which is thought to be lacking in some of those who have eczema.

Phototherapy – this is another treatment for those with chronic eczema where the patient is exposed to up to 30 sessions of ultraviolet radiation. Expert supervision is required because the risks are the same as for sunbathing namely accelerated ageing of the skin and the increased risk of skin cancer.

As for treating the eczema, there is a natural range of products made from the fat of the african crocodile, it all has to do with the peptides contained in the crocodiles DNA. It takes away the itching and then makes the skin heal a great deal quicker, check out youtube and search crocodile oil eczema.

Angry and sad moods of child make the situation worse. I know that a child with eczema takes parents to the edge and many times we may become harsh. Try to keep your child happy.

You may become allergic to products you have used for years. Therefore, a change to all natural products that do not contain synthetic chemicals may be helpful. Some report that a sun bed is beneficial for treatment of eczema. Ultraviolet light exposure carries its own risks, particularly eventual skin cancer from exposure.

What brings about liver cancer

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material located in all human cells. DNA is a code that contains guidelines for the production of all physique characteristics this kind of as sex, top, eye and hair colour. DNA is inherited from mothers and fathers.


Cancer takes place when the framework of DNA is a sudden change. This is known as a genetic mutation. The DNA also offers cells with guidelines about when to expand, reproduce, and when to end playing. The mutation in the DNA changes these guidelines, so the cells proceed to develop. The cells carry on to reproduce uncontrollably. The production of a mass of tissue is regarded as a tumor. There are two varieties of tumor:

Benign – exactly where the cells do not have the capacity to spread past the tumor

Malignant – in which the cells can spread past the tumor and impact other physique components

The DNA in the cells can be modified by publicity to chemicals or toxic substances. A toxic substance that leads to cancer is identified as a carcinogen.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis

It is nonetheless unclear what brings about the liver cells to turn out to be cancerous. But in some cases, the lead to is unfamiliar. For instance, continual infection with hepatitis B or C can result in liver cancer. Nonetheless, cirrhosis by itself is a important threat aspect.
In the past, most cases of cirrhosis connected with HCC were alcohol abuse. However, in current years, the principal trigger of HCC is cirrhosis brought on by viral infections transmitted by blood, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
What are the chance elements for liver cancer?

A danger aspect is one thing that boosts your opportunity of establishing a condition or ailment. For illustration, obesity significantly will increase the chance of developing variety 2 diabetes. Consequently, obesity is a danger component for form two diabetes. Factors that increase the threat of primary liver cancer incorporate:

* Age. In North America, Europe and Australia, liver cancer most typically has an effect on the elderly. In building international locations of Asia and Africa, liver cancer prognosis tends to take place at a youthful age (in between 20 and 50).
* Specific inherited ailments of the liver. Liver disorder may well enhance the threat of liver cancer contain hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis and Wilson’s illness.
* Chronic infection with HBV or HCV. Persistent infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) boosts the threat of liver cancer.
* Cirrhosis. This disorder brings about progressive and irreversible scarring of the liver and increases the possibilities of building liver cancer.
* Diabetes. People today with this condition of blood sugar have a increased possibility of liver cancer.
* Excessive consumption of alcohol. Consuming much more than a reasonable quantity of alcohol can lead to irreversible liver injury and improve the chance of liver cancer.
* Exposure to aflatoxins. Consumption of meals contaminated with aflatoxin-making fungi drastically increases the chance of liver cancer. Crops this kind of as maize and peanuts can develop into contaminated with aflatoxins.
* Disease NAFLD. The accumulation of excess fat in the liver increases the danger of liver cancer.
* Obesity. Possessing a balanced physique mass index will increase the threat of liver cancer.
* Intercourse. Males are much more most likely to acquire liver cancer than women. It is important to detect the cancer at early stages and start the correct treatment for liver cancer
What leads to liver cancer?

I am a 23 years old boy who is studing biology in harvard university and miss the sunny days

What is Dyshidrotic Eczema Actually Caused by

Eczema and its other unique forms like Dyshidrotic Eczema have been connected to many causes. Historically, Dyshidrosis was considered to be a result of bouts with sweating, however, many modern cases do not have any history of abnormal sweat patterns. Although excessive sweating is no longer seen as a major cause forthe illness, it has been noted to irritate vesicles across the feet or hands, and cause vesicle eruption. One common factor between almost all skin disorders are stress or trauma.

Stress and mental anguish can manifest itself in a great many forms including physically on ones uppermost layer of skin. Further stress may easily exacerbate the condition to create more severe symptoms. There has been evidence suggesting that Dyshidrotic Eczema is likely to be caused by genetic predisposition found in the very DNA of the patient. Certain metals particularly cobalt and nickel, as well as other substances have been shown to start instances of intense dyshidrosis pompholyx in patients. These substances could be used in faux jewelry and work or recreational environments.

Many patients in the throes of dyshidrotic eczema have cited that violent outbreaks of this condition surface after their skin has long been subjected to chlorinated pool water, another irritant being fluoride filled city water. Eczema itself has been noted to be triggered by certain antibacterial soaps, perfumes and colognes, as well as skin contact with freshly sliced meat or fruit juices.

Fungal infections most notably tinea pedis or -Athletes Foot- is usually linked with dyshidrotic eczema as well. Damp skin will also trigger or even worsen the illness or set off episodes of it, certain fabrics can dampen your skin more and ought to be avoided like nylon, wool, along with other synthetic fabrics. As a consequence of skin desiring to “breath” skin tapes, bandages, as well as plasters really should be avoided.

Balsam of Peru seems to be an irritant shared by many sufferers of dyshidrotic eczema. Habits most notably smoking and excessive coffee abuse have also been found to enhance the seriousness of the illness.With all of these causes one cannot forget the most apparent: Inheritance. If your family is sufffering from a history of past cases of eczema or atopic dermatitis then your prospects of exhibiting warning signs of dyshidrotic eczema are greatly amplified.

Major Causes: Stress Inheritance/DNA predisposition Exposure to metals i . e . nickel and cobalt or other chemicals Fungal infections Common skin irritants

Spices Shield Against Skin Cancer

Spices Save Your Skin

Skin cancers are the commonest cancers globally and by far the majority of these ubiquitous tumours are caused by excessive exposure to the sun.

The sun’s ultraviolet rays (UVR) are those responsible for inducing several pre-malignant processes in the skin. Not only do they damage DNA directly but they also cause inflammation, excess free radical production and immunosuppression. These factors combine to form a tumourigenic cocktail that increases the risk for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers.

In spite of their potentially damaging effects UVRs also provide crucial health benefits; therefore it is important that the human skin is exposed to the sun for limited periods of time. The most important of these benefits is UVB rays’ involvement in the production of vitamin D from dehydrocholesterol in the deep layers of the skin.

There is also evidence that a lack of exposure to the sun’s rays is a significant factor in the development of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and certain malignancies other than skin cancer.

It is worth noting that the human body does attempt to prevent the accumulation of radiation damage and does so by initiating repair mechanisms at relatively low levels of radiation exposure.

These processes involve both intrinsic and extrinsic (plant derived) antioxidants, enzymes and other protective plant based compounds and work in the following ways:

1. Activation of mechanisms that counter free radical damage and oxidative stress.

2. Acceleration of programmed cell death (apoptosis) of pre-cancerous cells.

3. Activation of DNA repair mechanisms at low levels of radiation exposure.

There is a dichotomy in relation to UVR. On the one hand, in order to sustain normal physiological processes, we need a certain amount of exposure to the sun. However, if we are exposed to excessive amounts of UVR and have inadequate protective biological processes, we increase our risk for several different types of skin cancer.

It seems obvious that, as humans have lived for eons with constant exposure to the sun, our bodies would have adapted protective strategies to counter the damaging effects of UVR while still obtaining the benefits thereof. We now know what some of these strategies are but, in order to understand how to enhance them, we need to take a look back over thousands of years at the vital role nutrient dense plant foods play in this regard.

Only a few thousand years ago our hunter-gatherer ancestors roamed, more or less naked, predominantly in the sun-drenched regions of the planet. Thanks to a more extensive ozone layer, they were probably exposed to slightly lower doses of UV radiation per unit time than we are today. However they undoubtedly spent long periods of time in the sun while they hunted and collected plant foods. They also had dark skins that gave them an extra measure (but by no means complete) of protection against excessive UVR exposure. There is evidence that they lived well into their sixties and were therefore subject to significant UVR exposure for several decades.

Protective phytonutrients

The key to our forefathers’ success in countering UVR damage was their consumption of a diet rich in phytonutrients. Owing to their active lifestyle, hunter-gatherer communities consumed a high calorific diet. The difference between their high calorie diet and a contemporary high calorie diet is that the former consisted largely of richly flavoured (spicy), phytonutrient-dense plant foods while the modern diet is dominated by relatively bland nutrient deficient plant foods.

The nutritional characteristics of the plants that hunter-gatherers consumed were different to ours in that they had far higher phytonutrient/calorie ratios to the plants we eat today. Those that are available nowadays are generally energy dense plant foods with much lower phytonutrient/calorie ratios.

There are two reasons for this. Firstly, we eat many grain based foods that have very high carbohydrate levels and relatively low phytonutrient levels. Secondly, over the centuries, we have bred varieties of most of our grains, fruit and vegetables that are far bigger, sweeter and starchier than they were in their natural state.

Add to this modern chemical farming methods and we now have plant foods with very low phytonutrient/calorie ratios that consist primarily of water and carbohydrates. These provide far fewer protective compounds than they did several thousand years ago. This translates into reduced intake of phytonutrients that, in adequate amounts, could protect us against UVR and other carcinogenic environmental factors.

The only food categories that have more or less escaped the plant breeders’ attentions are the spices. Spices are the plant foods closest to those that our ancestors ate. They have extremely high phytonutrient/calorie ratios and contain large concentrations of a wide variety of powerful antioxidants and other protective nutrients.

Recent scientific evidence has shown that several spices contain compounds that are very effective in countering UVR damage to the skin. These molecules possess the ability to act as direct and indirect antioxidants. They have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and can activate genes that control lasting protective processes against UVR damage. Scientists working in this field have also noted that multiple antioxidant compounds (found in phytonutrient-rich plants) have a better protective effect than high doses of single antioxidant supplements.

Spices known to have specific protective effects against radiation damage are:

Turmeric contains the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, curcumin that has remarkable cancer fighting abilities against several cancers including melanomas.

Mustard contains sulphorafane, a non-antioxidant compound also found in cruciferous plants such as broccoli. Sulphorafane works by activating the body’s intrinsic cellular defenses against UVR and has been shown counter skin malignancies when used both internally and topically.

Curcumin and sulphoraphane are only two of the spice-based compounds that are currently being studied as possible treatments for a range of skin and other cancers. However, as spices provide a wide array of antioxidant and other protective compounds, it is highly likely that there are many more of them that can help us contain skin cancers as they undoubtedly did for our hunter-gatherer ancestors.

A combination of selective plant breeding, modern agricultural methods and poor dietary habits means that, without an injection into our diets of a significant quantity and variety of phytonutrient-rich foods such as spices, it almost impossible to obtain the optimum quantities of protective plant compounds. Until we do so we will continue to see a rise in the incidence of skin cancers and other malignancies.

Oil Of Oregano Nature’s Miraculous Medicine

Can you imagine an amazing herb strong enough to sterilize sewage water, but gentle enough not to harm human tissue? Most of us are very familiar with this herb as it is used for flavoring in cooking. Now more of us are realizing the incredible health benefits of this herb when it is delivered in essential oil form. Essential oils work far faster than teas and many times faster than capsules and are readily digestible and quickly absorbed and assimilated into our physical system. We all have heard of oregano as it is used on our pizza. Now we can realize the health benefits of oregano in essential oil form.

The results of research done in 1910 by W.H. Martindale, lead him to conclude that “the essential oil of oregano is the most powerful plant-derived antiseptic known.” Research in 1977 done by Dr. Belaniche resulted in his “oregano Index” against which all other antibacterial substances are compared. Oil of Oregano is the closest to being the ideal antibacterial agent. Dr. Blaiche states “Among the more active of oils, Oregano is the best of the best. The essential oil of oregano has always provided me with amazing results in treating infectious diseases. Dr. Jean Valnet who is a French authority on the use and benefits of essentials oils, states that essential oils “proved to be many times more effective at killing pathogenic microorganisms than antibiotics.”

An active ingredient of oil of oregano is carvacrol which has been found to help relieve upper respiratory infections such as colds and sinus infections. It potently inhibits platelet aggression which is a risk factor in blood clot formation that is a major cause of strokes and heart attacks. Oil of oregano, in one study, was found to reduce melanoma by 50% in vitro. Oil of oregano has powerful anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-parasitic properties. This is important because parasites and viruses, like yeasts, cannot be treated successfully by antibiotics. In a 1966 study published in Medical sciences Research, it was shown that oil of oregano killed RNA and DNA viruses such as sold sores, genital herpes, and shingles. This makes it a very beneficial for treating the conditions of colds and flu. Oil of oregano is significantly effective in treating various forms of harmful parasites. Oil of oregano is an effective digestive aid. Oil of oregano has also been found to surpass prescription synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs in it’s effectiveness in relieving and reversing pain and has been said to be almost as powerful as morphine. Oil of oregano has been shown to strengthen the immune system. As an antioxidant, it halts the formation of cholesterol which is responsible for arteriosclerosis, i.e. hardening of the arteries.

An extra advantage of oil of oregano is that it can be used either topically or internally, depending upon the need and target ailment e.g. acne, allergies, arthritis, asthma, athlete’s foot, blood clots, bronchitis, candida, canker sores, colds, flu, constipation, croup, dandruff, diarrhea, digestive disorders, earaches, fatigue, fungal infection, gastrointestinal infection, gum disease, hay fever, headaches, inflammation, insect bites, menstrual irregularities, muscle pain parasites, psoriasis, ringworm, rosacea, seborrhea, sinusitis, thrombus, toenail fungus, and immune system.

Often known as a cooking herb, there is much more to oregano when it is used in essential oil form .It’s long list of health benefits makes it one of nature’s best kept secrets, a natural health aid that is a remarkably miraculous and versatile medicine. If we are suffering from any the before mentioned health ailments, we would be well served to explore the healing properties of this miraculous herb, oil of oregano.

Identify Early warning Signs of Skin Cancer – Do You Have Skin Cancer

An understanding early detection of skin cancer is crucial to prevent experiencing the more serious and dangerous form of skin cancer. From the least to the most dangerous, they are: basal cell carcinoma (or basal cell carcinoma epithelioma), squamous cell carcinoma (the first stage of which is called actinic keratosis) and melanoma.

Cancer is defined as the abnormal growth and division of cells in the body. If this errant growth is restricted to a few cells then it poses no threat to humans. Should it start to spread unchecked by the body’s immune system then it becomes what is termed malignant or cancerous.

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun can be harmful to the skin and is the main cause of of skin cancer. According to the US National Institutes of Health it damages the DNA that regulates the skin cells. Excessive and long-term exposure to UV, either naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as sunlamps can lead to skin cancer. In a lesser amount of cases skin cancer can also be inherited genetically.

Asymmetry means irregular shape. Dividing the mole in half with an imaginary line, the top half should look very close to the bottom half or the right side the same as the left side if the mole is normal or benign. Therefore, benign or non-cancerous and non-malignant moles are usually symmetrical or look the same on both sides of the dividing line. If the mole is irregular in shape and both sides do not compare well then this is an indication of a possible skin cancer problem.

Border refers to the outside edge of the mole or spot. A normal or benign mole or growth has smooth and even outer borders. A problematic growth has borders that are described using many different terms such as notched, jagged, scalloped, poorly defined, uneven, or even blurred. In summary, these terms are simply describing an irregularity or lack of smoothness in the borders of the mole or growth.

Color is also one of the five signs of skin cancer. In this case, look for whether the mole has an even color or hue. If the mole has more than one hue, then this could be a cause for concern. Benign growths are generally one color, hue, or shade. Brown is often the normal color, but not always. Cancerous moles can have shades of black mixed into shades of brown or tan. Dashes of red, white, and blue may also appear as the cancer progresses.

Diameter or the size of the mole or growth is one of the five skin cancer signs to be aware of. If the growth is larger than 6 mm or a quarter of an inch, then medical attention should be pursued. In relative terms, the eraser on the end of a pencil is about 6 mm in size. Of course, it is less likely, but possible that growths smaller than this size can be cancerous. Any mole growing in size is a concern and should be examined by a medical professional.

Evolving. The mole has been changing in size, shape, color, appearance, or growing in an area of previously normal skin. Also, when cancer develops in an existing mole, the texture of the mole may change and become hard, lumpy, or scaly. Although the skin may feel different and may itch, ooze, or bleed, cancer usually does not cause pain.

If you find that any change in the texture of the skin, contact your doctor immediately. Any change in skin pigmentation can be a sign of skin cancer.

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Protandim Review – ABC Health Report – The Bottom Line

For those who have seen the video replay of the ABC Primetime Investigation of Protandim from LifeVantage and get the science are left

wanting more data about the product and the company manufacturing it. Once you find out that there is a business opportunity behind it all that allows you a chance for once to really make something significant happen financially generates even more excitement. Yes there are hard times ahead for all of us as a result of the economy and sometimes it seems that the world has come to a screeching halt which only makes the launching of a company such as this even that more important.

So for those who don’t get or understand the significance of Protandim here is my attempt to shed some light on the subject. For the first time ever a test can be given to see the amount of oxidative stress occurring in your body. This test is not so new. However what is new is that there now is an over the counter patented pill that lowers the oxidative stress levels in your body by 40% in everyone who takes the pill. Thislowering can be accurately measured once someone has taken the pill for at least 2 weeks.

Everyone has oxidative stress. The amount you have in your body determines how fast the inside of your body ages. Oxidative stress is a form of rusting in your body at the cellular level. Superoxide Dismutase is the enzyme that your body produces to rid your body of the burning and waste that is produced in your cells when you expose them to everything from oxygen to toxins. Food, alcohol, smoke and even sun light generate what is called -Free Radicals- which over time damage cells and cell tissue. Exercise and injury’s to your body cause oxidative stress. Think of it as rust on a car or dirt in your engine. Your body uses an enzyme called Superoxide Dismotase which is created at the cellular level and triggered by your DNA. Protandim has been medically proven to trigger your body’s ability to generate the necessary amount of SOD at the rate of 1 million to 1.

So the bottom line is that for about $50 dollars per month you can lower your oxidative stress to the level of a young teenager. There is no other company offering any type of pill that can come close to making this statement. The science and research provided by Dr. Joe McCord relegates most every other product making anti aging or anti oxidant claims outdated. Keep in mind that oxidative stress has been clinically proven to lead to over 200 different deceases including cancer. So if high oxidative stress makes your insides age faster and compromises your DNA which can lead to deceases and cancer, wouldn’t it make sense to keep your oxidative stress levels low? The bottom line is that this is not a prescription drug and chances are your doctor still may not be aware of the peer reviewed articles. If you are the insists on a doctors authorization for an aspirin you might consider sharing the video which will point him or her in the direction needed for a recommendation to Protandim.

Whether you need more information or you’re ready to actively start marketing you start by visiting href=”” target=”_blank”>I Got Science. Walt Rice has developed winning strategies to help just about anyone reach their marketing and financial goals. href=”” target=”_blank”>YouTube Video

Amazing Health Benefits Of Chlorella

Chlorella is a single-celled, blue-green algae noted for its nutrient-richness, its ability to support detoxification and its role as a complete food. It is in fact one of the worlds greatest superfoods, making available much of the nutrition we require to maintain good health. Its broad spectrum of protein, carbohydrate and vitamin content makes it a highly useful supplement for people following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Chlorella is also a popular aid to detoxification and the subsequent maintenance of an optimised system.

Rainforest Foods Chlorella is a variant known as Chlorella vulgaris. It has several major virtues, notably its ability to assist detoxification of the body. It appears to bind to the toxic chemicals we absorb through eating, drinking and respiration, ushering them away through excretion. Conversely, it seems able to recognise nutrients valuable to the system and leave them in place.

Within the cell wall is Chlorella growth factor (CGF), a powerful immune system stimulator that aids the bodys natural defences against viruses and cancer and helps damaged tissue heal. CGF is primarily composed of nucleic acid derivatives such as RNA and DNA, which help govern cell growth, reproduction and repair.

In addition to assisting toxin removal, Chlorella carries a multitude of valuable nutrients into the body. It delivers vitamins A, C, E and the vitamin K complex. It also provides most of the B vitamins, including folic acid. This latter is well known as a desirable supplement for pregnant women as it supports healthy foetal development. Chlorella is a useful source of slow-release proteins, as well as essential minerals such as iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous and chlorophyl.

The role of Chlorella as a digestion aid is less celebrated, but no less important. Thanks to the presence of enzymes such as pepsin and chlorophyllase it fosters healthy gut flora to optimize the digestion of food and removal of waste. This ability to promote healthy food processing while providing valuable food elements boosts the immune system in its own right. As an optimiser of the human system, Chlorella has few peers.

Health benefits of Chlorella

It helps optimise the gastro-intestinal system, protecting against and aiding recovery from ulcers, colitis, Chrohns disease and diverticulosis
It boosts the immune system, and promotes the bodys production of infection-preventing interferons
It aids cholesterol control
It helps optimise heart function
It helps normalise blood sugar
It aids the maintenance of healthy muscle and bone structure

Chlorella has a tough cell wall. This helps with detoxification, binding a variety of toxins to it and helping the body eliminate them. However, the cell wall also acts as a barrier, reducing the amount of nutrients within the cell that are available to the body. In Rainforest Foods chlorella the cell wall is broken using a high impact jet spraying process that maintains the nutritional integrity of the cell contents. This means that the nutrients within the cell are both accessible and undamaged.

Health Scandal Of The Decade Monsantos Gmo Perversion Of Food

It is the culmination of an astonishing scandal that has been steadily building over the past decade. During this time Monsantos mutated seeds have grown to 90% of the U.S. soy crop and 85% of the corn crop and wheat is next on their agenda. Their efforts have been marked by corporate bullying and have drawn the attention of the Justice Department who is conducting an antitrust investigation. All the while they have been spending millions on lobbying to fast track their agenda before the American public even realizes what hit them. Europeans are livid about the lack of safety testing for this newest Monsanto experiment. Monsanto is making an ominous power play to corner the worldwide market on food and seeds. In the process they are adversely altering the very nature of food itself.

Few people would eat Monsantos food if they understood what it was or knew that they were eating it. President Obama and his family wont eat it. Neither did the Bush family. Even a Monsanto employee cafeteria rejects it. This is no laughing matter. Your health and the health of your children and grandchildren are at stake. It seems more like a scene from a horror flick than something happening in modern day America. Imagine your digestive tract turned into a Roundup herbicide factory and other warped genetic signals slowly and progressively rotting away your health. Unlike acute food poisoning from infectious E.coli, it is a slow and insidious poisoning.

Why GMO Food is Dangerous
Monsantos GMO (genetically modified organism) technology inserts non-food genes, genes from other species, into the DNA of food, altering the very nature of food itself. In some cases these genes make the crops more tolerant to the Roundup herbicide made by Monsanto and in other cases the genes abnormally cause the DNA of food cells to produce toxic proteins that act as pesticides.

Most people are not comfortable with the concept of altering the nature of food in a grand genetic experiment with unknown consequences. The idea of food producing its own internal toxin is equally abhorrent. After all, who wants to eat toxic food? Even fewer trust this technology in the hands of Monsanto, a company with a history of blatant disregard for human health. It was Monsanto that knowingly poisoned the planet with toxic PCBs.

The process of making GMO seeds also poses health risks. Viral promoter genes are used during this production process and become part of the DNA mix, posing a risk for new types of viral disease. An unintended side-effect of this production technology is chronic activation or suppression of normal genes in the modified plants. This alters the actual nutrient structure of food and the function of the proteins within that food a very serious matter.

The entire process of producing GMO seeds is also unpredictable. It creates multiple random genetic events in every food cell invaded by the mutant genes. Because each gene doesnt just do one thing and is highly interactive with other genes, the production of GMO food is not consistent and therefore safety cannot be guaranteed especially when you understand that our scientific knowledge of gene interdependencies is in its infancy.

Eating food that is mutated by other non-food species is a grand experiment to say the least. GMO mutants can transfer to the living bacteria in your digestive tract, as has been shown in animal experiments. This can adversely change the way your gut bacteria behave so that they create pesticides and become more resistant to your immune system and medical treatments. If the GMO mutants were to transfer to an existing infection in your digestive tract then it could create your own superbug.

Because the proteins in GMO food are structurally different than normal food they significantly increase the risk for allergy. Allergy is one form of inflammation that is likely to result from GMO food, but there are many other potential sources. These include the mis-metabolism of the food, the inherent toxicity of the food, and the pesticide residues on the food. These inflammatory problems of GMO food will additively contribute to other forms of inflammation such as pollution and stress and add to the total inflammation burden sets the stage for many diseases. It is likely that GMO food will have a significant impact on pregnancy problems and developmental problems in children. At this time nobody can rule out GMO as a possible causative factor in Autism, as the rates of both have risen together. A recent re-evaluation of data provided by Monsanto showed that various types of GMO corn caused significant inflammatory organ damage to rats.

It has now been shown that the health consequence of eating high amounts of Roundup residue that is being sprayed in ever-higher amounts on GMO crops is the disruption of your endocrine system. A recent study shows that these residues of Roundup are highly interactive with sex hormones and significantly disrupt their function.

A 2008 Austrian government study showed that feeding GMO corn to mice for multiple generations resulted in fertility issues and weakened kidneys, as well as changes in metabolic pathways involved with inflammation, cholesterol, and protein. Here is a link to the 105 page report.

GMO crops are also drastically and adversely altering soil quality. In fact, soil animals such as earthworms are now found to have incorporated GMO mutant corn genes into their cells. This finding is of extreme importance to potential human health problems. There is certainly nothing preventing this from happening to humans.

For more information on the devastating health consequences of consuming GMO foods read Jeffrey Smiths books, Seeds of Deception and Genetic Roulette.

You may be wondering the obvious; if GMOs are so dangerous to eat then why are they allowed in the food supply?

Corporate Cronyism – A Corrupt FDA Places the Public in Danger
We now know that FDA scientists originally working on the issue of the safety of GMO food had considerable concerns that included allergies, toxins, adverse nutritional effects, and new diseases. They urged long-term studies but were ignored by FDA management who instead decided that GMO food was substantially equivalent to normal food. In 1992 these managers issued the following policy statement in the Federal Register, The agency is not aware of any information showing that foods derived by these new methods differ from other foods in any meaningful or uniform way. In retrospect, that policy, which stands to this day, was a flat out lie and a treasonous betrayal of the public trust.

Court cases have forced into public view the documents expressing the concerns of the FDA scientists. You can read them all at this link to the BioIntegrity.Org website. In fact, rushing GMO foods to market also represents a serious breach of scientific integrity by the overall research community.

Today, the FDA is a world leader in proteomic technology, the advanced analysis of protein structure and function. Italian researchers using proteomics have already proven beyond any question that GMO food is so genetically different from normal food that it cannot possibly be considered substantially equivalent. Certainly the FDA could discover this fact for themselves in a matter of hours. Why are FDA scientists in handcuffs and not taking action?

Part of the FDA management teams culture of corruption is a revolving door with the various companies they are supposed to be regulating, the very definition of corporate cronyism. These shenanigans have had the net effect of the FDA acting primarily as a police force bully representing various powerful lobbies that buy protection and marketing favors, while stomping on the rights of the little guys like organic family farms and consumers. In the case of food, Monsanto wins the gold medal for influence pedaling at the expense of human health.

One of the more egregious examples of cronyism is Michael Taylor. He was an FDA staff lawyer and Executive Assistant to the FDA Commissioner from 1976 to 1981. From 1981 to 1991 he worked at the law firm of King and Spaulding, acting as Monsantos lawyer and lobbyist. He was a major proponent for overturning the Delaney Clause, a 1958 law prohibiting the introduction of known carcinogens to processed foods, a law Monsanto hated and which was eventually overturned by Clinton in 1996. His main responsibility during this time was gaining regulatory approval of Monsantos genetically modified cancer-causing bovine growth hormone (rBGH).

To complete his efforts on the bovine growth hormone issue Taylor went back to work for the FDA in 1991 with the title Deputy Commissioner for Policy at the Food and Drug Administration. He was directly responsible for writing the FDA policy on substantial equivalence which initially ushered in the rBGH era and to this day enables Monsanto to market its GMO mutated food with no appropriate oversight by the FDA as to safety. He also formulated policy that prevented milk producers from informing consumers that their milk was free of bovine growth hormone intentionally preventing consumers from being able to tell what was in the milk product they were consuming.

After accomplishing his dirty work, he left the FDA in 1994 and went to work for Monsanto as Vice President for Public Policy, working on Monsantos long range plans. More recently, he became a Senior Fellow at Resources for the Future (RFF) and Director of the Risk, Resources and Environmental Management division. In this role, he strategized how to get Monsantos GMO crops into Africa, working closely with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. He also worked closely with the Bush Administration, and is the point man in helping an elite agenda to spread GMO seeds and biotech dependence around the world.

You guessed it now he is back at the FDA in a new position the Obama Administration created Senior Advisor to the Commissioner, working primarily on issues of food safety! I am pleased to welcome Mike Taylor back to the FDA, Commissioner of Food and Drugs Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., said in announcing Taylors appointment. His expertise and leadership on food safety issues will help the agency to develop and implement the prevention based strategy we need to ensure the safety of the food we eat.

As Monsanto, in anti-competitive collusion with Dow, takes their new GMO toxic and mutated corn to market, stacked with eight genes, it should come as no surprise that absolutely no safety testing is being required by the FDA. Never before have there been eight genes altered simultaneously within the cells of food. One gene is bad enough. Three is horrendous. But eight? The fact that the FDA is not requiring extensive safety testing by independent sources of this highly unpredictable and dangerous technology is unthinkable. It is a grim day when the fox is in charge of the henhouse.

There Is No Good Reason for Monsantos GMOs
If you listen to Monsanto and their business cohorts such as Cargill, they state they are trying to feed the world. In reality, the world could eliminate Monsantos mutated food tomorrow and it would be a better place. It could also do without Cargill acting as an unregulated food banker, profiting on the manipulation of food sales at the expense of farmers in a way that is every bit as bad as the worst of Wall Street. There is no need for Monsantos GMO mutated seeds. They offer no advantages. It is an industry being propped up by unelected bureaucrats and elected officials on the receiving end of Monsantos multi-million dollar lobbying operation.

Michael Taylor is one example of corporate crony influence, there are many others. The USDA is profiting from Monsantos seeds that cannot be used the next growing season (the Terminator aspect of the problem). The EPAs failure to regulate the amounts of Roundup used on food is yet another scandal. Its all about profits and control while undermining the worlds farmers and the biodiversity and sustainability of crops.

Contrary to the Monsanto and Cargill propaganda, GMO technology does not increase crop yields, as has been fully documented in the Union of Concerned Scientists report titled Failure to Yield. And GMO crops are very bad for the carbon footprint.

The fact that the Obama administration is actively forwarding Monsantos efforts should be a grave concern to every American. Of course, the last 16 years of Clinton and Bush also did everything in their power to help Monsanto. No wonder Americans are fed up. Politicians in both parties are beholden to the golden idol, not the best health interests of its citizens.

Take Back Our Food Join the Fight
We the people can have a huge impact and we can change this serious threat to human health. Dont buy GMOs food. GMOs permeate corn and soy products, beet sugar is now mutated, and wheat is next in line. If you arent sure how to avoid GMO foods and brands then follow the advice given on Jeffrey Smiths Non-GMO shopping guide. Demand from your political representatives that all GMO food be labeled as containing GMOs. This isnt just a political issue this is about your personal health and the future of food.

Watch this humorous and informative animation and pass it on to your friends: Larry Leptin & Family in Invasion of the Frankenfoods.

Electron Ionization Cross Section in relation to dosage of medicine-Antimicrobial drugs

Electron Ionization Cross Section in relation to dosage of medicine-Antimicrobial drugs By (1 S.Kavitha, 2 V.R. Murthy,,3 K.R.S. Samba Siva Rao)1(Research Scholar, Dept. of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. India, 2(Prof.& Head, Dept. of Physics (P.G. Course), T.J.P.S. College, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. India. (3 Prof. & Head, Dept. of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. S.,*Corresponding author


Physical parameters such as molecular polarizability, diamagnetic susceptibility, and molecular electron ionisation cross section are important parameters bearing some dependence on the dosage of the medicine through the electron transfer of the medicine in the process of diagnosis. Hence they are analysed and used in calculating the dosage of few anti-microbial drugs, in particular Quinolones. Data collected on Plasma protein binding Bioavailability, Half-life period and Log P show dependence on Q and is expressed in the form of a mathematical equation. The dosage thus calculated by above parameters has a good agreement with the suggested dosage values. For example Ciprofloxacin has the reported dosage value1.0grms/day against the calculated dosage value 0.849grams /day. In case of other drug Lomefloxacin, the calculated value is 0.394 grams /day against the reported value 0.4 grams /day. Similar observation was done in case of other quinolones compounds also. The present method enables a new approach in finding out the drug activity and is preferred to the highly theoretical approaches involving quantum mechanical methods.

Key words: Dosage, Half Life Period, Electron Ionisation cross section.

Introduction: The quinolones are potent synthetic chemotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics 1, 2. Since the introduction of Nalidixic acid in 1962 3, 4 several structural modifications have resulted in second, third and fourth generation antibiotics. With the recent introduction of agents such as Gatifloxacin and Moxifloxacin, the traditional gram-negative coverage of fluroquinolones has been expanded to include specific gram positive organisms5.Community acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Even with optimal therapy, this illness is associated with mortality rates of approximately 15 percent.6

Therapeutic uses of fluoroquinolones include the following: 1) For serious acute cases of pyelonephritis or bacterial prostatis, where the patient may need to be hospitalised, fluoroquinolones such as Ciprofloxacin, 7oflaxacin, lomefloxacin, enofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin are recommended.8 2) Due to excellent penetration into prostatic tissue, norfloxacin, levofloxacin,ciprofloxacin and iflaxacinhave eradication rates of 67 to 91%.9,7 3) The U.S.Food and drug administrationhas labelled gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin and levofloxacin for use in the treatment of acute sinusitis.10For severe forms of community aqured pneumonia , the fluroquinolones are associated with improved treatment rates.11 4) In case of sexually transmitted diseases, a single dose of ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin is considered as alternative treatment in for example patients with pencillin allergy.12 5) Fluroquinolones in combination with other drugs such as ofloxacin plus metronidazole or Cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin plus clindamycin 7,10 are used to relieve pelvic inflammatory, Diabetic food infections etc. Norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin are used in the treatment of traveller’s diarrhea and certain other infections such as typhoid fever and Vibrio cholera. Adverse events: Although quinolones are well tolerated and relatively safe, certain adverse effects are 13, 14 common. Gastro intestinal and Central nervous system 15,16 effects are the most frequent adverse events occurring in 2 to 20 per cent of patients 17-22.Other adverse effects such as QTC prolongation, 23,24 hepatotoxicity, tendon rupture, cardiovascular toxicity, disturbed blood glucose levels 25,26 certain dermatologic effects etc.

Mechanism of fluoroquinolones: Fluoroquinolones interfere with bacterial DNA metabolism by the inhibition of two enzymes, Topoisomerase II (Syn. DNA gyrase) and Topoisomerase IV. In gram-negative organisms DNA gyrase is the primary target, where as in Gram -positive bacteria topoisomerase IV was recently found to be most affected. The function of DNA gyrase is to introduce supercoils into the linear DNA double helix, which results in the highly condensed three dimensional structure of the DNA usually present inside the cell. The function of topoisomerase IV is involved in the separation process of the DNA daughter chains after chromosome duplication. DNA gyrase and Topoisomerase IV have a very similar protein structure, each composed of two sub units(Gyr-A and gyr-B). The Gyr-A subunits of this enzyme were proposed to initially bind to the double stranded DNA helix. In an ATP-dependent process, described as intermediate gate opening step-, both DNA strands are leaved at certain 4 base pair staggered sites. The 5’ends of the DNA chain are thereby bound covalently to Tyrosine 122 residues with in the Gyr-A-subunits. Gyr-B-subunits are probably responsible for the ATP-dependent releasing process of the DNA. Two quinolones molecules self-assemble inside the pocket in dimer structure 27 and attach to the gyrase -DNA complex electrostatically, which stabilizes the intermediate stage of this reaction step. Permanent gaps in the DNA strands induce synthesis of repair enzymes (exonucleases) initiating uncoordinated repair process, which results in irreversible damage to the DNA and, finally, cell death. 28, 29

Methodology: A knowledge of Molecular polarizability, diamagnetic susceptibility, Molecular electron ionisation cross section reflects on transport mobility, activity and the vigour of the electron associate with the interaction of the medicine with the electrons released from host cell(or effected cell) of the body during the reaction .Hence an investigation of these properties leading to the dosage of the few anti-microbial drugs (Quinolones) is taken up in the present investigation. The above parameters are obtained through quantum mechanical approach of Lippincott, Bond Polorizability and Bond Refractivity of Le Fevre. The diamagnetic susceptibility for these systems is evaluated using Rao &Murthy’s method. The molecular electron ionization cross section is then evaluated from diamagnetic susceptibility using modified Kevan’s formula of Murthy et al. The electron ionization cross section along with the data of Protein binding, Bioavailability, Log P,& Half-life are taken from Wikipedia are used in the present investigation.30 The related work of drug dosage activity through molecular electron ionization cross- section and medical parameters like bioavailability, protein binding etc., has been reported by Murthy et al in a few medicinal systems. 31, 32, 33 The present paper deals with the evaluation of dosages of a few anti-microbial drugs (Quinolones). The information regarding the Molecular polarizability obtained by Lippincott method, Bond polarizability and Bond refractivity, diamagnetic susceptibility and molecular electron ionisation cross section was given in already accepted previous papers31, 32, 33, 34

?aP = 4nA/ao [(R2/4) + (1/2(CR)2)]2 x e-(XA-XB)2/4 (1)

?an = ? fj aj (2)

? 2 a- = n df ?2j/?j2 (3)

aM=1/3[?aP+? a n +? 2 a-] (4)

aM=?[3/4pN?](R8) (5)

aM= n1 a(c=c) + n2 a(c-c) +———– ——–=Ojnjaj (6)

?M = ? m s1aM (7)

Q (in 10-16cm2)=0.278n ?M ( 8)

Molecular polarizablility can be calculated by Lippincott method, Bond refraction method and Bond polarizability method. The aM by Lippincott method is evaluated with help of parallel component (?a?p), Perpendicular component (?2a-) and ?a?n .The parallel Component?a?p, is based on parameters i.e. A, CR, ao are taken from Lippincott35 are given in the equation(1).The values of bond lengths required for evaluating?a?p are taken from CRC Hand book of Physics and Chemistry.36 Similarly the perpendicular component is given in the equation(3).The electronegativity and atomic polarizability values are taken from the reference.36Thus calculated ?a?p, ?a?n and ?2a- are given in table I. Finally from these values aM is measured by the formula (4). Molecular polarizabilty obtained by other methods i.e Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction methods are given table II. The values needed to calculate the mean molecular polarizabilty -aM’ from Bond refractivities and Bond polarizabiltes are taken from Le Fevre37.and expressed in 10-25cm3.

The diamagnetic susceptibility -?M’ is calculated with the help of equation 7. The -aM’ values obtained by three methods i.e. Lippincott, Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction are inserted in the given equation which gives the ?M. The necessary data required for the calculation of -s’ Covalency factor taken from reference. 38

The covalency factor is calculated as s=[s1 1/n1. s2 1/n2——–s n 1/n8-]1/2 (9) s=e-(XA-XB)2/4 Where XA and XB are electronegativity of the bond A- B respectively and n1, n2 are the bond orders. Calculation of ?M is immediately followed by -Q’, Electron ionisation cross section which only needs the ?M value. The ?M and -Q’ values obtained by Lippincott Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction are shown in the table III. Practical approach for diamagnetic susceptibility through vibrational magnetometer technique is under progress. Of the three methods -Q’ obtained by Bond polarizablities are taken as standard because, this method is found to be sensitive to conformational changes than the other two methods. In table IV, the calculated values of Electron ionisation cross section -Q’ along with other medicinal parameters are given. These include Protein binding, Bioavailability, Log P and Half life period of some anti-microbial (Quinolones). The data required are taken from Wikepedia30. By calculating the -Q’, an attempt has been done in studying the activity of a drug and further its interaction with the target molecule. Finally with the help of the expression 10, dosage of antimicrobial drugs is calculated and compared with the reported dosage values taken from reference 30. The results are given in the table V.

=((Q/D)2/3LLogP) va/5 (10)

Where, Q – Electron ionisation cross section D-Dosage of the drug L- is the Half-life period Log P -Hydrophobicity a= (PB)(BA)/6ms

Where, m – the no.of unsaturation bonds PB -Protein binding BA-Bioavailabilty s- the Covalency factor

Results and Discussion: A keen observation of the dosages of the medicinal compounds calculated and reported show he following features. The calculated dosage of Prefloxacin is 0.825 grams per day against the reported dosage value 0.8grams per day. Similarly Lomefloxacin and Sparfloxacin has the calculated value 0.394 grams per day and 0.211 grams per day compared with the reported dosage value0.4 grams and 0.222grams per day. Good agreement regarding the dosage values were observed in case of other medicinal compounds also. An analytical approach on Q and medicinal parameters reveal some observations .Generally the medicinal compounds having similarity in their structure are analysed. In case of Quinolones (Antimicrobial drugs) ,Prefloxacin has the -Q’valuei.e3.03×10-16 cm2 less than Lomefloxacin Q value11. 27×10-16 cm2 But increased half-life period 8.6hrs than half life period of Lomefloxacin 3 to 5 hrs. Similarly for Nalidixic acid the half life is 1.1to2.5hrsless than the Ciprofloxacin h alflife period i.e.3 to 4 hrs. Compared to the -Q’ values of Nalidixic acid (12.23×10-16 cm2) and Norfloxacin (8.33×10-16 cm2). An attempt has been made in analysing the relation between Log P (Hydrophobicity) and ‘Q’ Electron ionization cross section. The hydrophobicity of Sparfloxacin is2.5 compared with the hydrophobicity value of Moxifloxcin 2.9 against the -Q’ value Sparfloxacin11.806×10-16 cm2 and Moxifloxacin 9.459 x10-16 cm2. Similar observations is done in case of Prefloxacin and Lomefloxacin. From the above data it is hypothesized that lower the hydrophobic nature of the drug higher may be the interaction of the drug with the target molecule and finally the activity of drug molecule i.e. Electron ionization cross section. Comparison of -Q’, Electron ionisation cross section value and the dosage value reflect some useful and supporting view to the above analysis. In case of Sparfloxacin Q value ( 11.806×10-16 cm2). The reported dosage value is0.22grams per day againt the lower Moxifloxacin Q value 9.459 x10-16 cm2 and higher dosage value 0.4grams per day respectively. Similarly Lomefloxacin (Q value11. 27×10-16 cm2) has 0.4grmas per day to Prefloxacin (Q’valueless than Lomefloxacin i.e3.03×10-16 cm2) dosage value 0.8 grams per day. Rigorous work is under study in order to understand the relation between -Q’, dosage and other medicinal parameters of other medicinal compounds.

A plausible explanation for this behaviour may be given as follows. An increase in electron transportation activity reflected by higher electron ionization cross section will tender the chemical reaction to be faster. Hence an incidence of electron from the donor to the place of malignity will make the process curing faster. Thus very little dosage of the medicine will be sufficient. A long continued impingement of the electrons on the malgn cells might develop saturation effects. Hence the life time of the drug for limited time suggested. Thus an increase in Q explains lower half life and lower dosage. A continued dosage of such medicine might result in undesirable toxic effects. Rigorous work is under study in order to understand the relation between -Q’, dosage and other medicinal parameters of other medicinal compounds.

Inference: The present method hints at study of important physical parameters like refractivity and electron ionization cross section through simple molecular structure. An elucidation of Q and its use with other medicinal parameters yield a new method of obtaining medicinal dosage. Thus the present method of arriving at medicinal dosage through physical parameters n, k ,Q give a novel approach of equation of dosage and looking at it from molecular level of interactions. This approach has the superiority over the already available sophisticated medicinal methods which involve highly theoretical quantum mechanical modelling, highly computive modelling or highly sophisticated physicochemical methods of drug analysis.

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16) Iannini PB (June 2007). “The safety profile of moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones in special patient populations”. Curr Med Res Opin 23 (6): 1403-13. doi:10.1185/030079907X188099. PMID 17559736. 17)Hooper DC. Mode of action of fluoroquinolones. Drugs. 1999;58(suppl 2):6-10. 18)Hackbarth CJ, Chambers HF, Sande MA. Serumbactericidal activity of rifampin in combination with other antimicrobial agents againstStaphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986;29:611-3. 19)Walker RC. The fluoroquinolones. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74:1030-7. 20). Lipsky BA, Baker CA. Fluoroquinolone toxicity profiles: a review focusing on newer agents. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:352-64. 21)Stahlmann R, Lode H. Toxicity of quinolones. Drugs. 1999;58(suppl 2):37-42. 22)Harrell RM. Fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy: what do we know?. South Med J. 1999;92:622-5. 23)Falagas ME, Rafailidis PI, Rosmarakis ES (April 2007). “Arrhythmias associated with fluoroquinolone therapy”. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 29 (4): 374-9. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.11.011. PMID 17241772. 24)Rubinstein E (2001). “History of quinolones and their side effects”. Chemotherapy 47 Suppl 3: 3-8; discussion 44-8. doi:10.1159/000057838. PMID 11549783. 25)Mehlhorn AJ, Brown DA (November 2007). “Safety concerns with fluoroquinolones”. Ann Pharmacother 41 (11): 1859-66. doi:10.1345/aph.1K347. PMID 17911203. 26)Lewis RJ, Mohr JF (2008). “Dysglycaemias and fluoroquinolones”. Drug Saf 31 (4): 283-92. doi:10.2165/00002018-200831040-00002. PMID 18366239. 27)Hooper DC, Wolfson JS: Mechanism of quinolone action and bacterial killing, in Hooper DC, Wolfson JS (eds): Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, ed 2. Washington DC, American Society for Microbiology: 53 – 75, 1993. 28)Shen LL: Quinolone – DNA interaction, in Hooper DC, Wolfson JS (eds): Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, ed 2. Washington DC, American Society for Microbiology: 77 – 95, 1993. 29)Morais Cabral JH, Jackson AP, Smith CV, Shikotra N, Maxwell A, Liddington RC: Crystal structure of the breakage-reunion domain of DNA gyrase. Nature Vol 388 / 28: 903 – 906, 1997. 30) 31)Murthy, V.R.& Venkata Raghuram D, Drug, dosage, activity, Studies of antimalarials by Physical methods-II, Bonformation 2(1); 12-16(2007). 32)Murthy, V.R.& Venkata Raghuram D and Murthy, P.N.romanian J.Phy. 17, 207, 2007. 33)Murthy, V.R.& Venkata Raghuram D and Murthy, P.N. Proce.National Seminar recent trends in Biomedical Physics. Guntur.(India) p.122-132. 34)V.R. Murthy, S.Kavitha, K.R.S. Samba Siva Rao,- Drug, Dosage Studies of A Few Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants- 35) Rao. B.P., Murthy,V.R.,-Curr.Sci.-,1972, 41, No:1

36) David, R. Lide, CRC Hand Book of Chemistry and Physics, National Institute of Standard Technology, CRC Press LLC, London, (2004). 37)Molecular Refractivity and Polarizability by R.J.W. Le Fevr, Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry 3,1-90,(1965). 38) A Hand Book Of Chemistry and Physics ,CNR Rao, Mahanthy & others, Affliated East &West Press Limited, New Delhi,(1967).

TABLE-1 Molecular Polarizabilities of Anti-microbial drugs(Quinolones) by Lippincott method in 10-25cm3

S.NoName of the drug?a?p?a?n?2a- 1Nalidixic acid469.19117.784231.208 2Norfloxacin645.04924.96346.985 3Ciprofloxacin691.86624.956272.072 4Sparfloxacin768.94024.956272.072 5Moxifloxacin862.9924.703329.746 6Prefloxacin680.24320.756306.652 7Lomefloxacin687.93520.756269.383

TABLE-II Molecular Polarozablities (aM) in 10-25cm3 S. NoName of the drugaM by Lippincott methodaM by Bond PolarizablityaM by Bond Refraction 1Nalidixic acid231.208266.244247.319 2Norfloxacin315.907346.985333.101 3Ciprofloxacin329.631366.252342.97 4Sparfloxacin385.709383.183378.339 5Moxifloxacin405.814423.115421.671 6Prefloxacin335.894354.352352.635 7Lomefloxacin326.025347.852347.166

TABLE-III The Diamagnetic Susceptibilities (in 106CGS units) and Molecular Electron Ionisation cross section (in10-16cm2)of certain Anti-microbial drugs(Quinolones) ? M in 106CGS units Qin10-16cm2 S.NoName of the drugByByByByByBy LippincottBond PolarizabilityBondLippincottBond PolarizabilityBond Refraction method Refractionmethod 1Nalidixic acid56.41764.96760.3411.43313.16612.23 2Norfloxacin38.98942.82541.1127.9028.6798.332 3Ciprofloxacin65.82373.14668.49512.3414.82413.881 4Sparfloxacin59.39959.10158.25612.03811.97811.806 5Moxifloxacin44.9246.83546.6779.1049.4929.46 6Prefloxacin14.25415.03814.9642.8893.0483.033 7Lomefloxacin53.85155.74855.63810.91411.29511.276

TABLE-IV Electron Ionisation cross section (in10-16cm2 ) and other medicinal parameters

S.NoName of the drugQ PB BALog PHalf Life(hrs) 1Nalidixic acid12.23093962.11.1-2.51.383 2Norfloxacin8.33215502.13-41.1383 3Ciprofloxacin13.88130502.53-51.176 4Sparfloxacin11.80650502.5201.272 5Moxifloxacin9.45986-92402.9121.477 6Prefloxacin3.033251002.48.61.450 7Lomefloxacin11.2760.725502.13-51.335

TABLE-V Drug dosage (in grams/day) S. NoName of the druga’Calculated dosages grams/dayReported dosages grams/day 1Nalidixic acid0.0951.3834.0334.0 2Norfloxacin0.0091.1380.6510.80 3Ciprofloxacin0.0131.1790.8491.0 4Sparfloxacin0.0261.2730.2110.222 5Moxifloxacin0.0491.4750.4090.40 6Prefloxacin0.0691.4490.8250.8 7Lomefloxacin0.0371.3350.3940.4