What brings about liver cancer

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material located in all human cells. DNA is a code that contains guidelines for the production of all physique characteristics this kind of as sex, top, eye and hair colour. DNA is inherited from mothers and fathers.


Cancer takes place when the framework of DNA is a sudden change. This is known as a genetic mutation. The DNA also offers cells with guidelines about when to expand, reproduce, and when to end playing. The mutation in the DNA changes these guidelines, so the cells proceed to develop. The cells carry on to reproduce uncontrollably. The production of a mass of tissue is regarded as a tumor. There are two varieties of tumor:

Benign – exactly where the cells do not have the capacity to spread past the tumor

Malignant – in which the cells can spread past the tumor and impact other physique components

The DNA in the cells can be modified by publicity to chemicals or toxic substances. A toxic substance that leads to cancer is identified as a carcinogen.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis

It is nonetheless unclear what brings about the liver cells to turn out to be cancerous. But in some cases, the lead to is unfamiliar. For instance, continual infection with hepatitis B or C can result in liver cancer. Nonetheless, cirrhosis by itself is a important threat aspect.
In the past, most cases of cirrhosis connected with HCC were alcohol abuse. However, in current years, the principal trigger of HCC is cirrhosis brought on by viral infections transmitted by blood, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
What are the chance elements for liver cancer?

A danger aspect is one thing that boosts your opportunity of establishing a condition or ailment. For illustration, obesity significantly will increase the chance of developing variety 2 diabetes. Consequently, obesity is a danger component for form two diabetes. Factors that increase the threat of primary liver cancer incorporate:

* Age. In North America, Europe and Australia, liver cancer most typically has an effect on the elderly. In building international locations of Asia and Africa, liver cancer prognosis tends to take place at a youthful age (in between 20 and 50).
* Specific inherited ailments of the liver. Liver disorder may well enhance the threat of liver cancer contain hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis and Wilson’s illness.
* Chronic infection with HBV or HCV. Persistent infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) boosts the threat of liver cancer.
* Cirrhosis. This disorder brings about progressive and irreversible scarring of the liver and increases the possibilities of building liver cancer.
* Diabetes. People today with this condition of blood sugar have a increased possibility of liver cancer.
* Excessive consumption of alcohol. Consuming much more than a reasonable quantity of alcohol can lead to irreversible liver injury and improve the chance of liver cancer.
* Exposure to aflatoxins. Consumption of meals contaminated with aflatoxin-making fungi drastically increases the chance of liver cancer. Crops this kind of as maize and peanuts can develop into contaminated with aflatoxins.
* Disease NAFLD. The accumulation of excess fat in the liver increases the danger of liver cancer.
* Obesity. Possessing a balanced physique mass index will increase the threat of liver cancer.
* Intercourse. Males are much more most likely to acquire liver cancer than women. It is important to detect the cancer at early stages and start the correct treatment for liver cancer
What leads to liver cancer?

I am a 23 years old boy who is studing biology in harvard university and miss the sunny days

Stage Iv Esophageal Cancer, Natural Cure For Cancer

Stage IV Esophageal Cancer is said to be the metastatic cancer state which has spread to various locations of the body near and far. Different factors influence the decision of the patient for receiving cancer treatment. Patients in their Stage Iv Esophageal Cancer might have various purposes of receiving or undergoing treatment for cancer. For some, it might be for enhancing the symptoms via controlling cancer locally, for others it might be a chance for cure or for prolonging the survival of the patient. The potential advantages of getting treated for cancer should be carefully analyzed and balanced along with the potential side effects and risks of getting the treatment for cancer.

Stage IV Esophageal Cancer patients normally would be in the state where the cancer has widespread during diagnostic period and might not be cured using surgery. But the patients in this stage might sometimes like to undergo surgery for enhancing both the quality and quantity of food intake and for lowering the severity of food consumption related symptoms. Hence patients with inoperable Stage IV Esophageal Cancer undergo palliative esophagectomy for relief.

Other treatment options and modalities for Stage IV Esophageal Cancer patients include thermal laser, photodynamic treatment, esophageal dilatation, esophageal prostheses or stents and so on.

Thermal laser coagulated carried out by endoscopy might offer dysphagia relief temporarily. Polypoid cancers which grow inside the esophagus resulting in occlusion can be treated to the optimum using laser ablation. But laser treatment might not be that effective for cancer found in gastroesophageal junction and in upper esophagus.

Photodynamic ablation is found to be effective than thermal laser in patients with esophageal cancer for palliation. It involves injecting a light sensitizer inside a vein that is consumed by the cells. Then the laser is directed on the cancerous cells. The cells with light sensitizer get destroyed.

Esophageal dilatation is performed in patients who have undergone chemotherapy, laser treatment, photodynamic treatment and radiation therapy. The esophagus area affected by cancer get narrowed or constricted that relief is provided by esophageal dilatation and thereby improving the swallowing capacity of the patients temporarily. Flexible dilators are passed using fluoroscopic or endoscopic guidance by the physician via the mouth. Dilators or bougies with increasing diameters are introduced gradually into the esophagus till the swallowing difficulty is reduced.

Esophageal prostheses or stents are nothing but rigid tubes which are kept inside the esophagus for keeping them open. These are normally used in patients with Stage IV Esophageal Cancer and who are in their inoperable stage of esophageal cancer.

Natural Remedies:

You can increase your chances of surviving esophagus cancer now by trying these proven natural remedies discussed here – http://cancernaturalremedies.com

Gastric Cancer – Global Drug Forecasts And Treatment Analysis To 2020 Volume I 2011

GlobalData analysis finds that the global gastric cancer therapeutics market is attractive, and is primarily driven by the growth in the number of patients receiving gastric cancer therapy and the annual cost of therapy. The patient volume is primarily driven by an increase in patient volume in countries such as China, France, Spain and Italy. The patient volume was driven by growth in treatment usage patterns such as diseased population, treatment seeking population, diagnosis population and prescription population. The annual cost of gastric cancer therapy was driven by the launch of new therapies such as Taxotere (docetaxel), Xeloda (capecitabine) and Herceptin (trastuzumab).

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There is no standard care for gastric cancer. The treatment of gastric cancer is largely based on the treatment guidelines of different countries. Very few drugs are actually approved for gastric cancer, although many drugs are recommended for use
in treatment. Taxotere is approved as a first line therapy in gastric cancer. The introduction of new therapies for metastatic gastric cancer is expected to expand the market further.

In 2010, Japan was the leading market in the global gastric cancer therapeutics market with an estimated market share of approximately 24.7%. China was the second leading market with 17% market share. The US is the third largest gastric cancer market with a 15% market share. Japan and China lead the market due to a large patient base.

In 2010, Taxotere was the leading drug with approximate sales worth $170m and a market share of 30%. Herceptin, which was launched in the US and EU in 2010, is expected to gain market share in the forecast period 2010-2020.

GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its new report, Gastric Cancer – Global Drug Forecasts and Treatment Analysis to 2020 Volume I 2011. The report is an essential source of information and analysis on the global gastric cancer therapeutics market. The report provides comprehensive information on gastric cancer, highlighting the treatment guidelines. It identifies and analyses the key trends shaping and driving the global gastric cancer therapeutics market. It analyses the treatment usage patterns in the global gastric cancer therapeutics market. The report also provides insights into the competitive landscape and the emerging players expected to significantly alter the positions of the existing market leaders. The report provides valuable insights into the pipeline products within the global gastric cancer sector. It quantifies the unmet need in the global gastric cancer therapeutics market as well as in the individual markets such as the US and the top five countries in Europe, highlighting the opportunity for future players

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A Token Of Support Those With Breast Cancer Will Appreciate

In 2007, there were more than 185,000 women and almost 2,000 men who were diagnosed with breast cancer. Worse, there were almost 50,000 women and 350+ men who died because of the disease. Indeed, breast cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world today. Breast cancer survivors and patients are also the people that need the most support, whether youre a loved one or even a stranger.

How to Show You Care

You dont need to spend hundreds or even thousands just to show that youre doing something to show you care and that you do support their cause. Even the simplest ways can already make a change. You can start with the following:

1. Celebrate Breast Cancer Month. October is set to be Breast Cancer Month, where the entire month is peppered with different activities that aim to provide awareness about the disease. You can opt to join the celebration of renewed life by being present during festivities, talks or symposiums. You can enjoy such things as a most eligible bachelor date auction where the funds that are raised from the even are used to further cure research.

2. Walk 60 miles. For 3 days, everyone is invited to walk 20 miles every day, in different cities all over the United States. The purpose of the walk is to educate people and the media about breast cancer, as well as to raise funds for various objectives of the organization. The money that will be raised can be used for outreach programs in such places where breast cancer is rampant. Many participants have found it easy to raise up wards of $2,000. Whats more, you can keep yourself healthy, as walking is known to be one of the best exercises.

5. Light a virtual candle. Is someone you know currently suffering from the disease? Would you like to send your well-wishes and give her strength and peace? You can light and send a virtual candle over the internet at places like The Center for Healing Arts Light A Candle to show the person support. It will definitely cost you nothing, except a few moments of your time and you can send it directly to her inbox, so you can brighten the persons day. A cheery little message or thought of solidarity with the candle will be greatly appreciated. It will not remove the illness, but it will definitely give your friend more courage to face each day, as she battles it out with breast cancer.

3. Volunteer. Surely, there are breast cancer organizations within your area, and you can apply as a volunteer. You will be the one to hand out flyers and other informative materials during campaign drives. You will be trained to conduct workshops and seminars for breast cancer awareness, or your help may be needed when there are outreach programs and services that need to be conducted. If you have sufficient educational background, you can even help in the research of the best cures and treatment for it. Being a volunteer doesnt have to take all your time. You can spend as little as 1 to 4 hours for the cause.

4. Wear a pink ribbon. Pink is the color that is associated with breast cancer, and wearing the color means that you are in total support for the programs that are being upheld by breast cancer organizations. Pink could also mean shirts, watches, wristbands, to go with your ribbon, which you can wear proudly near your heart, especially during the Breast Cancer Awareness Month.

Sulforaphane, A Compound Found In Broccoli With Potent Anti-cancer.

Chemical name: (R)-1-isothiocyanate-4-methyl-butane sulfonyl

Sulforaphane is a compound with antioxidant properties and is capable of stimulating detoxifying enzymes present in the body, and thus a potent preventive agent against cancer. Phytochemical belonging to the family of isothiocyanates, compounds that contain sulfur. It occurs in plants attached to a sugar molecule, the glicosinato sulfarafano (glucorafanina). Only after eating the sulfarafano will be released by an enzyme called myrosinase, and can be found on plants in the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) such as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale (Brassica oleracea) and Chinese cabbage (B . rapa). However the greatest concentration of Sulforaphane is present in shoots of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica).

Many epidemiological studies, supported by in vitro and in vivo (Gasper et al., 2006), have been reported associated with the potential to reduce the risk of various cancers by substances contained in vegetables. Among its constituents are the fibers, micronutrients, phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenols, isoflavones and isothiocyanates that have anti cancer activity (Steinmetz & Potter, 1991). These substances induce detoxifying enzymes, oxidative agents, which inhibit malignant mutations, stimulate immunity and regulate the cell cycle (Liu, 2004). Other studies indicate a positive correlation between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and a reduction of some types of cancer such as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, liver, prostate, cervical, ovarian, lung and gastrointestinal tract (Lund, 2003, Nagle et al., 2003; Murillo & Mehta, 2001). Oral administration of Sulforaphane inhibited or delayed carcinogenesis in breast cancer (Zhang et al., 1994), colon (Chung et al., 2000), rectum (Seow, 2002), stomach (Fahey et al., 2002) and lung (Hecht, 2000).

Recent research has indicated that the use of certain compound in the diet act as quimioproteo (Chung et al., 2000, Shapiro et al., 2001, Chiao et al., 2002), such as isothiocyanates, which have promising evidence in the reduction of cancer prostate cancer (Brooks et al., 2001, Chiao et al. 2002; Kristal & Lampe, 2002, Wang et al., 2004, Srivastava et al., 2003, Xiao et al., 2003, Singh et al. 2005 ) and breast cancer (Ambrosone et al., 2004, Jackson & Singletary, 2004). According to research conducted by Singh et al. (2004), Sulforaphane and highly effective in reducing or preventing the risk of cancer induced by carcinogen in animal models. It is able to inhibit or delay carcinogenesis caused by smoking (Hecht, 2000). The Sulforaphane has been shown to be effective against oxidative damage on skin cells in the retinal pigment cells and leukemia (Gao et al. 2001; Fimognari et al. 2002; Misiewicz et al., 2003), has antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori ( Fahey et al., 2002), anti-inflammatory activity (Heiss et al., 2001), and against skin cancer caused by exposure to sunlight (Gills, et al., 2003). Ritz et al. (2007), have shown the beneficial effects of Sulforaphane on reducing the toxicity caused by diesel.

After the breakdown of tissue glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by the enzyme contained in the plant, myrosinase, to an unstable aglycone that rearranges in isothiocyanate or nitrile derivatives. When cooked, the enzyme myrosinase can be denatured, resulting in the ingestion of intact glucosinolates, yet the isothiocyanate still appears in the urine. Depending on how the broccoli is processed, sulforaphane can be absorbed by the stomach, intestine or colon after passive diffusion epithelial cells is rapidly conjugated with glutathione and transported to the bloodstream (Conaway et al., 2000).

Marcelo Rigotti.

Agronomist, Dsc. Agronomy.


Changes In The Works For Cancer-compensation Program

Ground-breaking legislation was recently introduced in the Senate by Idaho Senators Mike Crapo and Jim Risch. The bill, titled the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Amendments of 2010, would expand coverage for cancer victims and their survivors who were exposed to radiation during above ground nuclear testing from 1946 to 1962.

For those not familiar with the program, the Radiation Exposure Compensation Program provides payments to persons exposed to radiation by above-ground nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, and those who worked with uranium ore. There are five types of claims: Downwinders (those who lived around the test sites), Onsite Participants (those who participated in the testing), and Uranium Workers (millers, miners and ore transporters).

The most exciting change to the program would be the inclusion of all of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Idaho, Montana and Colorado. Currently, only 21 counties in Arizona, Nevada and Utah are covered, including portions of counties (like Mohave County in Arizona and Clark County in Nevada). Major areas that have been impacted by the testing, such as Las Vegas, would now be covered under the program.

The RECA Amendments of 2010 would further widen qualifications for compensation for radiation exposure; would expand the list of compensable diseases, would qualify post-1971 uranium workers for compensation and equalize compensation for all claimants to $150,000. This would mean that Downwinder victims and their survivors would receive triple the amount they are currently receiving ($50,000), and Onsite Participants would receive double what they are currently receiving. The changes would also include funding for an epidemiological study of the health impacts on families of uranium workers and residents of uranium development communities.

Presence requirements would change dramatically. A claimant would be required to show eligibility during one of the following periods: (a) one month during June 30, 1945 to July 31, 1945; (b) one year between June 30, 1946 to August 19, 1958, or (c) the period between April 25, 1962 to November 2, 1962. Medical benefits would be given to Downwinders. Currently only uranium workers applying for compensation under the EEOICPA can receive medical benefits. Uranium workers would be eligible to receive compensation if they were employed anytime prior to December 31, 1990. Affidavits could be used to establish residence for Downwinders and Onsite Participants.

These would be dramatic changes to the program and would provide more compensation to tens of thousands of people who deserve it. Please check my blog at www://downwindersprogram.blogspot.com or contact me at (928) 776-2457.

Skin cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer and seriousness

Skin cancer treatment is needed to wipe out and remove a cancer. The best form of the treatment is determined on the factors such as the size and location of a skin cancer, medical history of the patient, health, age and the risks. Usually, skin cancer treatment is in the form of surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy and in some cases a combination of these methods.

When physicians choose Skin Cancer Treatment, they prefer surgery to remove Basil cell and Squamous cell cancers. Surgery takes short time to remove the skin cancer cells. If the area of the removed skin cells is large, then skin grafting may be necessary to reduce the amount of scarring.

Laser therapy can be used for skin cancer treatment if the cancer is on the outer layer of skin. This treatment requires a highly focused beam of light to tear down cancer cells.

Cryosurgery therapy is usually applied to treat small skin cancers, actinic keratoses and other precancerous skin conditions. Under this treatment, liquid nitrogen is sprayed on the skin in order to freeze and kill abnormal cells.

However, radiation is considered as the best skin cancer treatment to kill cancer cells and prevent them from growing. Radiation takes longer time to complete and has some other short-term side effects as well. The patient should be aware of these side effects. If the cancer is only on the outer layer of the skin such as on the face, neck and ears, optical chemotherapy in the form of anti cancer drugs can be applied on the skin. These drugs are effective in removing abnormal skin cells.

If you have a skin cancer and It requires skin cancer treatment urgently, then you should look for a Skin Clinic Glasgow. Take the treatment only from the experienced and skin cancer specialists. You should also note that skin cancer could reoccur on other parts of the body. Hence, following the instructions of your doctor is necessary to avoid recurring of skin cancer.

Note that most of the cancers are curable today. Skin cancer treatment is curable due to advanced techniques adopted by the doctors. Many natural skin cancer treatments may work as an alternative to the surgery. When searching for a skin clinic Glasgow, know more about its credentials by reading the reviews on the web. Not all of the skin clinics are equipped with the latest technologies. Hence, find out if the clinic has the experienced physicians and the new technology to treat the type of skin cancer you are having.

You can find out more about Skin Cancer Treatment, Skin Clinic Glasgow, Treatment for Melanoma and more at Revive Skin Clinic Glasgow

Skin Cancer Of The Foot And Ankle An Epidemic

Skin cancer of the legs, ankles, and feet are some of the most overlooked cancers.

They are found in locations where most people consider skin cancers unlikely. Over 90% of skin cancers appear on sun-exposed skin, usually found on the face, neck, ears, forearms, and hands, but an alarming number are also found in the legs, ankles, and feet.

Why does sun cause skin cancer? Overexposure to sunlight damages the top layer, or epidermis of the skin. The most dangerous skin cancer is called melanoma, meaning a tumor of pigment producing cells. Melanomas can spread early to the lungs, liver, and brain making it a rapidly fatal cancer. It is expected tha something over 8,500 people will die from skin cancers this year! Most melanomas can be cured with early diagnosis and treatment.

Squamous Cell Carcinomas occur commonly on the forehead, lips, and handsbut they can be found on the arms hands, legs, and feet. These cancers can spread and early diagnosis and treatment is critical.

Basal Cell Carcinomas rarely spread to distant structures, but, if untreated, can destroy large portions of the face, scalp, nose, ears, and vast areas of skin. They can result in gross disfigurement if not treated early. Fair-skinned people are at greater risk for these cancers.

My heartfelt advice:

1. Please, have your moles and skin lesions checked. To put off doing so could be fatal. Ask your primary care physician or dermatologist to do a yearly skin check, all over. Don’t be modest about this. Your life could be at stake. I routinely check patients for suspicious moles and lesions on their legs, ankles, and feet. You need at least a yearly check-up with your podiatrist.

2. Use sun blocks to protect exposed skin, even in winter and don’t forget your legs and feet if they will be exposed!

3. Learn the ABCDs of skin cancer:
Asymmetry – The sides don’t match.
Border – It looks uneven or ragged.
Color – It has more than one color. These colors may have an uneven distribution.
Diameter – They appear wider than a pencil eraser. Also, look for ulceration, craters, donut-shaped edges, bleeding, or slow healing if the lesion is ulcerated. Any mole on the toes or the bottom of the foot is suspicious. If you notice a mole on a friend or family member that meets any of these criteria, gently encourage them to get it checked “to be safe”.

Skin cancer treatment without surgery with BEC5 Curaderm

Skin cancer that is non-melanoma can be easily and more importantly effectively be treated with BEC5 which is also branded as Curaderm. BEC5 Curaderm cream is particularly powerful when spread over Basal cell carcinomas. Consisting of a specially purified plant extract means BEC5 Curaderm is successful on Basal cell carcinomas ( BCC ) or Squamous cell carcinomas ( SCC ) which are the most widespread forms of skin cancer. Curaderm cream applications are also effective on benign tumours such as age spots, Keratoses, sun spots and Keratocanthmoas.

Taken from Solanum Sodomaeum this is a plant that is discovered in Australasia. This plant includes an important extract – Solasodine Glycosides. This is an active ingredient that is also discovered in smaller quantities in the eggplant and aubergine salosodine Glycosides and has been established as being very effective for treating cancerous skin conditions. As a result it is incorporated into BEC5 curaderm cream. BEC5 curaderm cream is a renowned sun spot cream, age spot cream that treats skin cancer at the source. Regressing non-melanoma skin cancers It is calculated that more than 80,000 people have applied BEC5 cream, with numbers continuing to grow as a lot more people are trying non-invasive treatment. Clinical trials carried out in Great Britain and Australia have investigated and established BEC5’s power to treat and regress skin cancer that is non- melanoma. One particular study showed how 72 patients being treated with curaderm BEC5 cream ended in the regression of all treated lesions that included 29 SCCs, 39 BCCs and 56 actinic keratoses. Within 1 to 13 weeks of treatment they were healed 100%. Recently 10 UK hospitals discovered how using BEC5 cream twice a day was able to offer total remission to 78% of the patients in as little as 8 weeks. The remainder 22% of patients had improved but required a slightly prolonged treatment time of 13 weeks. This was all made easy without radiotherapy, surgery or chemotherapy.

Royal London Hospital dermatologists have cited the efficacy of BEC5 curaderm cream as being -safe and effective’ skin cancer treatment along with being a perfect therapy for outpatient treatment. This is thanks to BEC5 being affordable and versatile. Approximately 95% of skin cancer are not the Melanoma type and eliminate the need for invasive and expensive operations. For both secondary and primary skin cancer this is proving a highly practical treatment.

Early Cancer Detection Through Handwriting Analysis

Handwriting is brain-writing.” Graphologists explain that the brain is the director of our physical as well as our mental activity. Just as our writing reflects our personality, so does it reflect certain aberrations in our physiology.

Alfred Kanfer, born in Austria and later imprisoned in Dachau concentration camp along with his wife, is considered the pioneer of the graphological neuromuscular test for determination of groups at high risk for cancer. He had an impressive 84-percent accuracy rate in detecting the disease through handwriting.

What the Kanfer test does is to apply a neuromuscular tool to determine the presence or absence of such characteristic neuromuscular disorders. The Kanfer test alone does not determine the presence or absence of cancer; it determines a factor associated with cancer.

Alfred Kanfer was released from Dachau; he emigrated to the United States. He was an outsider in the field of medicine-with a method for identifying cancer-prone individuals that was so highly unorthodox, that he had a stiff uphill battle to prove his method and find acceptance for it.

What is surprising is the cooperation he received, throughout his more then thirty-five years of work, from many prominent doctors and hospitals.

The Hospital for Joint Diseases in New York, the Preventive Medicine Institute-Strang Clinic in New York, the Equitable Life Assurance Society, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and the American Cancer Society provided financial and material support for Kanfer’s work. Their patients’ handwritings were submitted to him for analysis.

The “Heart Tick”

Graphologists have determined that certain breaks in writing, slight interruptions in the upstroke and in the downstroke, especially in letters with loops, can point to heart disease. They call this break a “heart tick” and find it particularly in the lower-case h

(see arrow, Figure 1).

Another sign is abnormal dotting in the course of the writing “trail” (see Figure 2).

In the act of writing, a person with heart trouble-which is often accompanied by shortness of breath-instinctively rests the pen on the paper, as one would do with a stick when walking.

Dr. Ulrich Sonnemann, a major contributor to the early development of professional graphology in the U.S. whose book Handwriting Analysis as a Psychodiagnostic Tool (Grune & Stratton, 1950) is highly respected in the field, confirms that a disrupted pattern of strokes can be indicative of cardiac disease. Sonnemann adds that the specific frailties and incomplete ataxias (the inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements), which are marked by partial dotting of the course of strokes, have been discovered at very early and clinically undetected stages.

Variations of Normal Handwriting

The foremost tenet in graphology is analyzing the difference between a person’s handwriting and how he was taught to write. There are many shades of instructional technique in script, all of which would be classified under “variations of normal handwriting.” When the writing differs to the extent that it certainly was not taught to the writer this way, that difference is analyzed. The “normal” writing sample is provided as a basis for comparison.

1. Marked difference between downstroke and upstroke pressure in regular sequence throughout a given writing sample.

Characteristics: Downsrokes are broader and show greater ink density than upstrokes.
(1 and 2 in Figure 3).

All downstrokes in a given writing have about the same width, and so do all upstrokes.

2. Elasticity of strokes.

The width of downstrokes gradually increases toward the baseline, where they connect with the upstrokes, and at the same time the upstrokes thin out slightly along their course.

3. Uninterrupted flow of movement through downstrokes and upstrokes.

Characteristics: Uniform, even density of ink throughout the length of downstrokes and upstrokes (1 and 2). Continuous, uninterrupted and unwavering delineations of downstrokes and upstrokes (1 and 2).

4. Uninterrupted flow of movement through area of transition (3 in Figure 3).
Characteristics are as above.

Of specific importance is the uninterrupted joining of downstrokes and upstrokes, which requires a maximum degree of neuromuscular coordination and is therefore of the highest significance.

Finding Cancer in Its Early Stages

A startling example of the accuracy of the diagnosis of cancer through handwriting analysis is the case of Mrs. B. By medical standards, Mrs. B. was found to be healthy from the date of her first handwriting sample to the date of the third. One year after the date of her third sample, at the age of 41, an advanced cancer was found, and she died at 42.

The following samples are microphotographs of Mrs. B’s handwriting.

The first one (Figure 5) was written at age twenty-eight, the second (Figure 6) at age thirty-three, and the third (Figure 7) at age forty.

The first sample, Figure 5, shows the typical criteria of normality-that is, a mature neuromuscular condition with a normal range of coordination. Normality is manifested in the smooth, continuous flow of movement, both in the descending and ascending strokes (uniform flow of ink throughout the strokes and sharp, continuous delineations to both sides of each stroke). The strokes have an oval shape; the turns from descending to ascending strokes are narrow, curved, and show continuity of movement throughout.
A regular pattern of heavier (wider and darker) descending strokes and lighter ascending strokes prevails throughout the sample.

The second sample, Figure 6, shows a marked change. Although the overall pattern of heavier descending strokes and lighter ascending strokes is still preserved, the narrow turns have disappeared, the writing spreads out widely, the strokes are much weaker and highly unstable, and in most of the ascending strokes, clear segmentations can be seen.
(Segmentation means that continuity of movement is interrupted, and the direction of the stroke is seen on microscopic examination to be wavering.) Clear interruptions between descending and ascending strokes are also visible.

The third sample, Figure 7, shows a breakdown of every phase of the writing process.

The strokes are stiff or formless. The pressure is uneven, sometimes too heavy, and in other strokes too light. There are clear interruptions between descending and ascending strokes, and both types of strokes show marked, low-amplitude, high-frequency segmentations.

“With these (and many such) findings it was for the first time shown with statistical significance that the manifestations of cancer in handwriting precede the manifestations of cancer by clinical signs.” (Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases, April 1, 1958)


Although Kanfer’s handwriting test was remarkable, he did make some blunders along the way, which had to be corrected. While he was able to clearly separate the healthy handwritings from the ones indicating cancer or heart disease, he erred by diagnosing a considerable number of the heart cases as positive for cancer. In later studies, with sharpening of the cancer criteria, this cause of error was practically eliminated.

A second error involved inappropriate use of materials and turned up when three tests were conducted under the auspices of the American Cancer Society. The first and third test ranged between 84 and 98.4 percent in the accuracy of detection of cancer.

The second study was the only one that failed. It was carried out on samples gathered at a Detroit cancer detection center. The reason for this failure, as later established, was faulty technical arrangements. The patients were made to write with a hard glass plate as a writing support and had to use a rigid, fine-point pen, a combination that made the finer segmentations in the stroke practically invisible, even to the microscopic equipment then available.

When this error was recognized, some changes were made in the microscopic technique and some of the samples were re-examined. Kanfer’s results were then considered “very good” by the Cancer Society. Nevertheless, this failure set his work back many years and demonstrated the importance of technical considerations in research.

Unresolved Questions

Many questions remain unresolved. What about the problem of a handwriting that “tests positive” when there is no medical diagnosis? What effects does that information have? What psychological harm can it do when there is no detectable cancer to treat?

This problem affected Kanfer himself. He went to the Strang Clinic doctors to tell them that he saw positive indicators of cancer in his own handwriting. They couldn’t find the cancer until three weeks before he died.

Although graphology’s strength lies primarily in personality evaluation, in which it achieves up to 98 percent accuracy, the statistical significance attributed to the Kanfer test remains great. The need for more research is vital.

Author’s note: Please do not try to diagnose yourself or others using this technique. It takes a professional to recognize the nuances of change in a handwriting sample.